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PLAB 1 Exam Survival Guide: 11 Common Mistakes to Avoid

If you have already been preparing for the exam, there are chances that you are making the same mistakes that others did before you. These can be catastrophic if you don’t acknowledge them. In this post, we will uncover the most common blunders students do while preparing for PLAB 1 exam.

The PLAB (Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board) examination is a requirement for foreign medical graduates seeking to practice medicine in the United Kingdom.

The exam is administrated by the General Medical Council (GMC) and serves as a means of evaluating the knowledge and skills of these doctors to ensure that they meet the standards set by the GMC.


The PLAB exam is divided into two parts, Part 1 which is a computer-based multiple-choice exam, and Part 2 which is a practical assessment of clinical skills.

The PLAB exam is significant for foreign medical graduates as it is a prerequisite for registration with the GMC. This means that passing the PLAB exam is mandatory for foreign medical graduates to be able to apply for a license to practice medicine in the UK.

The PLAB exam is known to be a rigorous test as it assesses a broad range of medical knowledge and clinical skills.

For many foreign medical graduates, the PLAB exam is a crucial step towards achieving their goal of practicing medicine in the UK.

It serves as a means of ensuring the quality of the medical profession in the UK and the safety of patients, by assessing the knowledge and skills of foreign medical graduates seeking to practice in the country.

Why PLAB Exam is Challenging?

Many doctors try to pursue their careers in the UK without a full understanding of the exam. They are simply tempted by the salary, the perks and the lifestyle in the UK.

However, getting into GMC is not easy. It requires a longer time duration and better financial conditions as compared to other competitive exams like NEET PG in India.

Firstly, it is very difficult to even get the PLAB 1 exam seats. There are some advanced tips though, but it still depends on luck and the amount of effort your pour in.

Secondly, many fail to achieve success and are left in a situation of panic and struggle despite the best preparation. The most important differentiating factor is the entirely different pattern of the PLAB 1 exam.

GMC focuses more on the clinical understanding of the topics and the ability to make decisions in a given period. YES! Time management is the lifeline of the PLAB 1 exam.

You must have already heard a lot of students complaining they were not able to finish the exam in time. This is common. It happens because the mocks and question banks we solve prepare us for testing our skills.

Students confuse them as part of learning and often end up mugging most of the information.

Lastly, it can be challenging if you get a slot in the UK and not your home country. You will have to get your visa which will require a lot of effort.

Common Blunders to Avoid in the PLAB 1 Exam

The most common reasons why students fail PLAB 1 exam are as follows:

1. Not Understanding the Format of the Exam

PLAB 1 focuses primarily on your clinical learning and how well you utilize them in real scenarios. The exam will often give you questions that test your comprehension of the concepts rather than pure mug-ups.

Some often do a lot of question banks and start feeling over-confident that they can easily solve similar questions in the real exam. NOT TRUE!

It does not matter if you are scoring above 90% or below 60% in mocks. As long you apprehend the notions, the exam is going great for you.

2. Gaining Recall Bias

Overdoing the normal mocks sometimes builds up what we call “Recall Bias”. This happens to students who solve several questions and mocks without admitting that most of them are just repeats.

How do you know you have recall bias? It’s easy. You will start answering the questions within the first 5-10 seconds because you are already familiar with the question, the options, and the right answer.

What you should do? Understand why the answer is correct and why the rest of them are wrong. This helps build up familiarity with the topics and their usage in real scenarios.

3. Time Management

This is the most important factor in the exam. You need to finish it in 3 hours. If you fail to answer enough, you will fail the exam.

Although there are 180 questions, you don’t necessarily need to solve all of them. Your target is to acquire enough marks to pass. Yes, solving more than 160 boosts your passing chances.

But if you do not focus on questions that you can get right and do them wrong because you were so focused on solving all of them, then you are not going to get the required marks and ultimately fail the exam.

Ideally, focus on attempting at least 160. Bear in mind, you should be confident in these answers. Do not rush things, focus on clinchers thoroughly.

4. Studying from Too Many Sources

Your goal is to get enough information to pass. By enough, we mean sufficient enough to help you pass PLAB 1 exam. Many start preparing from PLABABLE and PLABKEYS and Medrevisons. You can, but that will build up doubts over similar topics quoted differently on all these platforms.

Ideally, you should pick PLABABLE alone, PLABKEYS + PLABABLE, or Medrevisions alone. For starters, PLABKEYS and PLABABLE are good and widely accepted.

When you have sufficient time, do not take another source. Simply start revising your topics from the sources you already used. This will help build up a strong remembrance of topics.

What's interesting is that there are many students who waste so many hours arguing topics that are given in one source, but different in another. Stop scratching your head with them, if you have doubts, seek NICE CKS guidelines.

If you are confused about which study material to pick, you can find a complete review here.

5. Not Preparing Adequately

It is often a case when many aspirants have too many things going on altogether. These can vary from job, family, or even personal life issues.

If you are having trouble with any of them, you need to understand one simple concept- “GMC does not care about your issues”. You need to show them you can overcome each of them and be the right candidate.

If you are having trouble preparing sufficiently, you can try to make your own study schedule. This will help you eliminate the possibility of not meeting the crucial timelines.

To make a custom study timetable, simply use OneNote. Here is how you can make one.

6. Not Doing Question Banks

Yes! There are some who completely skip doing question banks and rely on theoretical approaches from platforms like PLABKEYS. This is a bad approach and will lead to devastating results.

You should be solving at least 50-100 UNIQUE questions a day. Imagine how many questions you will get acquainted within just 4 weeks.

7. Not doing Big Mocks

PLABABLE and PLABKEYS release their big mock a few days before the date of the exam. To be honest, they are gruesome and scary. But they give you an amazing idea of where you stand.

Not only the questions are entirely different and brand new, but they also allow you to test your time management which is an essential part of management.

If co-related, the marks in these big mocks will be almost identical to the ones you get in a real exam.

8. Not Making Your Notes

Making your notes is an amazing strategy to overcome various issues. These issues can vary from searching for a relevant topic or comparing topics in different subjects.

Additionally, these notes build up a wonderful visual memory which helps you quickly recall topics and solve the answer efficiently.

Ideally, you should have your own notes rather than following others. Good practice involves making digital notes which are easily searchable.

Here are some notes prepared for PLAB 1 exam which are made on OneNote and converted to PDF:

9. Worrying too much about Hb1 Pencil

Alas! Some are too concerned about whether to use HB1 pencils or another one. Indeed, you will find these questions popping up in WhatsApp groups very often.

Are they even relevant? Do you think anyone cares which pencil you use to shade your exam? NO! Stop wasting your time on these irrelevant questions which pop up a few days before the exam.

These topics are a time-killer and should be ignored. Your goal should be to attempt as many mocks and complete as many revisions before the exam.

10. Not Having LMRP

LMRP stands for Last Minute Revision Points. It is a good strategy to have your handy notes which are further divided into topics that you MUST revise a day before the exam.

If you have these LMRPs ready before exam, they will help you quickly revise topics that you can forget. Importantly, you SHOULD NOT add any new information to these key notes.

11. Not Trusting Instincts

There are cases when GMC tests you to apply your instincts as a good doctor. For example, you have to distinguish when to give painkillers to a patient. While many sources will cite otherwise, what does your instincts tell you?

This is a common problem and students overthink these questions and end up not relying on their instincts. Further, they waste precious minutes which could have been utilized in solving questions that were rather straightforward.

Of course there are many other blunders students make. These can include arguing with the examiner, not having adequate revisions, marking answers on question paper instead of the answer sheets, and many more.

Here is a video in which Dr. Nauman Balghari explains more about PLAB 1 Exam and the reasons why students fail:

Credits: Dr. Nauman Balghari

How is PLAB 1 Exam Marked?

There are 180 MCQ-based questions in total which should be attempted in 3 hours. Each question involves a stem and 5 options to choose from. There is no negative marking and each correct answer grants 1 mark.

The exam reviews your correct answers and evaluates them based on what should be the ideal score for passing. Usually, the passing scores are between 110-120 (115 average) out of 180.

Your goal is to pass the exam, not ace it. This is where time management plays a crucial role. Solving all the questions is not relevant, getting them correct is.

Lab values are given in the question itself as well as at the end of the booklet. Stop worrying about mugging them up.

Some Misconceptions about PLAB Exam

PLAB 1, or the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board test, is a crucial exam for doctors who have qualified outside of the European Economic Area (EEA) and wish to practice medicine in the United Kingdom.

However, there are many misconceptions surrounding the PLAB 1 exam that can cause confusion and stress for candidates.

1. Easy to Pass?

One of the most common misconceptions about the PLAB 1 exam is that it is easy to pass. In reality, the exam is quite challenging and requires a significant amount of preparation.

The test covers a wide range of medical topics, including anatomy, pharmacology, and ethics, and it is designed to assess a candidate’s knowledge and clinical skills.

2. Only for UK Doctors

Another misconception about the PLAB 1 exam is that it is only for doctors who have qualified in certain countries.

While the exam is primarily intended for doctors who have qualified outside of the EEA, it is also open to doctors who have qualified in EEA countries but have not practiced in the UK before.

3. Tests only Theoretical Aspects

One more misapprehension is that the PLAB 1 exam is only a test of knowledge and not of clinical skills.

But this is not true, the exam also assesses the candidate’s clinical skills, such as their ability to take a patient history, conduct an examination, and interpret diagnostic results.

4. Only Held Twice a Year

A further delusion about the PLAB 1 exam is that it is only offered once or twice a year.

The exam is offered multiple times throughout the year, which means that candidates have several opportunities to take it.

5. Only Grants Service in NHS

Lastly, some candidates believe that the PLAB 1 exam is only for doctors who wish to work in the National Health Service (NHS).

However, the exam is also a requirement for doctors who wish to work in private practice in the UK.

In conclusion, the PLAB 1 exam is a crucial test for doctors who wish to practice medicine in the United Kingdom. However, there are many misconceptions surrounding the exam that can cause confusion and stress for candidates.

It is important for candidates to understand that the exam is challenging, open to doctors from all countries, assesses both knowledge and clinical skills, is offered multiple times a year, and is required for both NHS and private practice in the UK.


While having adequate revisions, solving question banks, and attempting as many mocks is essential, it is equally critical to not overdo them. You should be focused on the PLAB 1 exam and not on irrelevant questions and confusing topics that waste your crucial time.

Additionally, having a good study plan involves good resources, a timetable, and sometimes, your own LMRP and handwritten/digital notes.

Avoid making silly mistakes and even if you do, weigh how they can impact your results. Prepare for the best but be prepared for the worst. The exam is fairly simple, complicating it means the risk of failing.

Just remember, GMC is testing whether you are a good doctor or a parrot that prefers mugging up things. This is easily tested based on your application of knowledge and TIME MANAGEMENT (emphasized strongly).

Additional Resources

The following resources can be used for the preparation for the PLAB 1 exam:

Differences between Piles, Fistula, and Fissures- Summarised Table

If you just had a streak of blood, you are possibly questioning yourself on Piles, Fissures, and Fistula. To help you better grasp the conceptual differences between them, we have summarised them below.

Additionally, we have quoted everything you seek to know about each of them with an in-depth analysis that will help you understand the contrasting features individually.

Piles vs Fissures vs Fistula

DefinitionSwollen veins near the anal canalUlcers near the anal canal that are extremely painfulTracks that run from the outside skin to internal parts
FeaturesPainless bleeding (pain can occur if external or complication occurs)Blood streaks and sharp intense painDischarge is a prominent feature
TypesInternal and ExternalNoneLow-level and High-level (additionally, simple and complex)
CausesConstipation, Straining, Lower fiber diet, GeneticHard stools, anatomical curvature, previous surgery, Crohn’s disease, Ulcerative colitis, and TBMostly explained by Cryptoglandular Hypothesis. Other causes include Tuberculosis, Cancer, Crohn’s disease, Ulcerative colitis, Trauma
DiagnosisClinical, Digital rectal examination and ProctoscopyMostly clinicalMRI/MRI Fistulogram, Colonoscopy if IBD suspected
TreatmentConservative- Fiber-rich diet and fluids, Non-operative such as Sitz bath, and Operative- Banding, Laser, Sclerosant injection, etc.High fiber diet, Stool softeners, Lactulose, AnalgesicsFistulotomy/Fistulectomy, Seton technique
Difference between Piles, Fistula, and Fissures

A video highlighting the key differences in a more modern way


What are Piles?

Piles, also known as Hemorrhoids, are swollen veins of the anal canal. It occurs when there is an abnormal downward sliding of anal cushions caused by straining or other factors.

The term “Haemorrhoids” is derived from two Greek words- haima (bleed) and rhoos (flowering), which indicate bleeding.

On the other hand, the word “Pile” is derived from the Latin word- “Pila”, which means ball.

Why do Piles occur?

Over 4.4% population suffers from hemorrhoids. That is a number above 10 million! Although it can occur at any age, it still has predominance in the age group between 30-65 years.

And despite the common myth that it occurs mostly in men, there is equal prevalence in both sexes.

There are a number of reasons why one can suffer hemorrhoids in their life. The prominent ones are mentioned below:

  1. Genetical
  2. Straining
  3. Diarrhoea
  4. Constipation
  5. Hard stools
  6. Low fiber diet
  7. Over purgation
  8. Cancer of Rectum
  9. Pregnancy- Increased progesterone relaxes and lowers the tone of the venous wall, a larger uterus compresses the pelvic vein, and constipation is prevalent.
  10. Liver problems- Portal Hypertension (rare)
  11. Idiopathic reason: It is quite difficult to determine the cause of piles.

What are the Signs and Symptoms?

People suffering from piles can show a number of symptoms apart from bleeding. These are:

  • Bleeding– This is classical “Splash in the pan”. It is typically bright red and fresh and often occurs during defecation.
  • Protrusion from the anal canal
  • Anemia– This can occur due to persistent blood loss
  • Discharge– mucous-like discharge
  • Pain– Usually hemorrhoids are not painful. But it can occur if they are an external type or there is an infection, spasm, or co-existing prolapse.

What are the Types of Piles?

There are two types of Piles. These can be internal or external. The landmark point is called Hilton’s line. This is a line that joins the upper two halves of the anal canal with the lower one-third.

If the piles are above this Hilton’s line, they are called Internal Hemorrhoids. However, if they are present below the line, they are called External Hemorrhoids.

While the internal hemorrhoids are protected by mucous membranes, the external hemorrhoids are protected by the skin.

A better understanding of the internal and external types of piles can be made by the following image:


Piles can be graded based on Prolapse (bulging or spilling out of a bodily portion) and whether it reduces by itself or not. There are four grades of hemorrhoids which are as follows:

Grade 1Bleeds but does not come out
Grade 2Prolapse after defecation but spontaneously rebound
Grade 3Prolapsed during defecation may only be replaced manually.
Grade 4Prolapse cannot be reduced at all
These grades are often referred to as the degree of hemorrhoids

Classifications based on Location

This classification follows primary sites- 3, 7, and 11’o clock positions. Depending on the three, it can be categorized as:

Primary Piles

Located at 3, 7, and 11 o’clock positions, these are the branches of the superior hemorrhoidal vessel, which separates into two on the right side and one on the left.

Secondary Piles

This is the one that happens between the three major clock sites mentioned above.

What are the Possible Complications?

There are rare cases of life-threatening complications occurring if prompt management and emergency care are given timely. However, these can occur and include:

  • Excessive bleeding- may require an urgent blood transfusion
  • Strangulation- when the anal sphincter grips the piles
  • Ulceration
  • Gangrene
  • Fibrosis
  • Stenosis
  • Infection (abscess which requires antibiotics)
  • Thrombosis- when piles turn dark purple/black in color and feel substantial and sensitive.

All Possible Treatment Options for Piles

There are over 9 treatment options one can have. However, this depends on various factors and is ultimately decided by the surgeon himself. These are:

Please note, according to guidelines, all asymptomatic hemorrhoid cases are not required to be treated.

1. Non-Operative

  • Sitz-bath– This implies that the patient must sit in warm water for 20 minutes, with the anal area immersed in water, 2-3 times each day. This decreases edema and discomfort while also promoting recovery.
  • Local treatments can be used to relieve pain, irritation, and edema.
  • Drink plenty of water and consume 35 g of fiber every day. Fibre substitutes (bulk-building substances, such as ispaghula husk, sterculia, and methylcellulose) can be used to augment a high-fiber diet; squats may minimize the occurrence of piles. Drinking plenty of fluids is also advised.
  • Laxatives such as Lactulose are often prescribed to reduce constipation and therefore, prevent bleeding from hemorrhoids.

2. Piles Injection- Sclerosant therapy

This is an OPD procedure that is done for first and second-grade hemorrhoids. This involves injecting 3-5 ml of 5% phenol in almond oil into the submucosal plane just above the anorectal ring to the pedicle.

This procedure can be repeated after 6 weeks and is relatively quick and painless. however, they are not popular because the oily solution is difficult to handle.

3. Banding

Barron’s banding is done for second-degree piles. This is a fairly cheap procedure and simple to perform.

The physician will use a proctoscope to visualize the hemorrhoids and band them to stop the bleeding. Two piles can be banded in one single sitting. The procedure is difficult in terms of visualization but easier to perform though.

4. Cryosurgery

Hemorrhoids are exposed to extreme cold temperatures using Nitrous oxide or Liquid nitrogen. It is painless, safe, and can be done on an OPD basis too.

5. Infrared Coagulation

This is the opposite of cryosurgery and heat is used instead. Often, three or four sittings at one-month intervals are required.

6. Laser Therapy

This is done for third-degree piles and involves laser usage. Advantages include- Less operational time; less intraoperative and postoperative bleeding and discomfort; faster healing; quicker recovery; performed under LNSA; fewer problems; less pain, constipation, and urine retention.

7. DGHAL- Doppler-Guided Hemorrhoidal Artery Ligation

This is under trial and requires further evidence for its efficacy.

8. Stapled haemorrhoidopexy

This involves circumferential excision. It is less painful, causes less blood loss, promotes faster recovery, requires a shorter hospital stay, and is as effective.

9. Open Surgery

Hemorrhoidectomy is the most effective therapy for piles. This involves ligation and removal of hemorrhoids.

Summary of Treatment Plans

Fiber-rich diet and plenty of fluidsMedical– Sitz bath, Laxatives, Pain killers
LaxativesConservative Surgery– Banding, Sclerotherapy, Cryotherapy, DGHAL, Laser, IRC
Surgical– Open and Closed hemorrhoidectomy, Stapled and Anal stretching
Treatment of Piles

What happens when Piles are Inflamed, Edematus, and Permanently prolapse?

A physician with an MBBS degree or higher may try manual stretching of the anal canal initially. This reduces anal cushion congestion and relaxes the anal sphincter, resulting in a reduction in prolapsed piles-dilatation Lord’s (8 fingers).

The official surgery is performed in 1-2 weeks after the edema has subsided.

What are the possible Complications of Surgery for Piles?

There are reported difficulties that can occur after surgical procedures. Some of these are as follows:

  1. Pain
  2. Urinary retention
  3. Bleeding- requires immediate IV Fluids initially followed by Blood Transfusion
  4. Stricture formation
  5. Unwanted discharge
  6. Fecal incontinence or flatulence
  7. Whitehead deformity

Piles Pictures

Anal Fissures

Also known as Fissure-in-ano, these are ulcers that are extremely painful. One peculiar feature about them in practice is that it lies above the dentate line.

Why do people get Anal Fissures?

  • Due to the curvature of the sacrum and rectum, hard fecal matter going down produces a rupture in the anal valve, resulting in a posterior anal fissure.
  • An anterior anal fissure is frequent in females owing to a lack of pelvic floor support.
  • Hard stools, diarrhea, increased sphincter tone, local ischemia, trauma, and sexually transmitted illnesses are all symptoms of hard stool.
  • Hemorrhoidectomy, Crohn’s disease, venereal disease, ulcerative colitis, and TB are some of the other reasons.

What are the Symptoms?

There are three classical features in people who have fissures. They are:

  1. Extremely painful especially on defecation
  2. Blood streaks on the stool
  3. Sharp intense pain while defecating

The diagnosis is often made clinically by physicians. There is no requirement for a proctoscopy.

How are they Treated?

Fissures usually require conservative management. The steps employed depend on the severity and acuteness of the illness:

  • Adequate fluid consumption (6-8 glasses of liquids)
  • Diet high in fiber (vegetables, fruits, brown rice)
  • Agents for bulk formation (psyllium husk, bran)
  • Softeners for stools (lactulose)
  • Local anesthetics (5% lignocaine)
  • Constipation can be avoided by taking a Sitz bath.
  • Regular anal dilation after recovery

NICE guidelines for Fissure (UK)

This is the quickest summary of the protocol for treatment:

  • <6 weeks- Lactulose> Topical Anaesthetics
  • >6 weeks- Topical GTN> Secondary Care Referral for Sphincterotomy/Botulinum

Difference between Piles and Fissure

Piles or hemorrhoids are usually not painful and present as a “Splash” of blood on defecation. On the other hand, fissures present as an extremely painful condition and “Streaks” of blood.


Fistula is sometimes confused with fissures and piles. But they are entirely different from both.

What is a Fistula?

In layman’s terms, Fistula is like a tunnel that opens outside from the skin and goes deep inside to different areas.

In clinical terms, a fistula-in-ano is a granulation tissue-lined channel that links the perianal skin superficially to the anal canal; anorectum, or rectum deeper.

Why do people get them?

There are two hypotheses for the causes. One is the Cryptoglandular Hypothesis which states that most of them begin as a single main tract, but recurrent infection eventually leads to the creation of extensions (secondary tracts).

The other simply incorporates the remaining causes which are as follows:

  • Tuberculosis
  • Carcinoma
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum
  • Hiradenitis suppurativa
  • Traumatic

What are the Types of Fistula?

There are two types- Low level and High level:

  • Low-level fistulas are those that enter into the anal canal beneath the internal ring.
  • High-level fistulas are those that enter into the anal canal at or near the internal ring.

These can further be divided as Simple or Complex depending on the addition of extensions.

What are the Features and Treatment Plans?

The clinical features as well as the curative options are listed for each as follows:

Low-Level Fistula

  • They exhibit seropurulent discharge (65%), as well as skin irritation, and one or more external openings may be present in the surrounding skin.
  • It may heal superficially, but pus may gather under the skin, causing an abscess that drains from the same or a new orifice.
  • Usual investigations include MRI/ MRI Fistulogram. A colonoscopy may be advised if Ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease is suspected.
  • Treatment involves Fistulotomy and Fistulectomy.

High-Level Fistula

  • Its top aperture is located at or near the anorectal ring and is much more challenging to treat as compared to the Low-level.
  • Investigations required include Barium enema X-ray, colonoscopy, chest X-ray, and biopsy.
  • Initially, colostomy (the surgical operation that generates a big intestinal hole) is followed by a definitive approach. Seton Technique is the preferred method for treating this type.

Difference between Piles and Fistula

While Piles present as blood loss on defecation, Fistula are associated with discharges from the tracks. These tracks connect external skin to different areas within the anal canal.

Snakes: Difference between Poisonous and Non-Poisonous


Have you seen in movies the sucking of venom by mouth? And you wonder if that’s suicide, right? Well, medically, that’s POSSIBLE! Let us find out what this blog has got about snakes.

This blog will explain everything about snakes, that is, Types of snakes, Common snakes in India, How to find if a snake is poisonous, General management for snake bites, and the Treatment.

Almost everyone faces a snake, at least once in their lifetime, so why not just get some basics of snakes in short? A simple read can save someone’s life someday, and worth value for the doctors.

Snakes – An overview

Snakes are cylindrical, long, limbless, cold-blooded reptiles. There are about 3500 species of snakes known among which about 350 species are venomous. In India, about 216 species are found and among them, about 52 are poisonous.

The body of the snake is divided into:

  1. Head
  2. Trunk
  3. Tail

Types of Poisonous snakes

Poisonous snakes are divided into 5 families:

  1. Colubridae: e.g. African boomslang snake, twig snakes.
  2. Alractaspididae: e.g. mole vipers or adders.
  3. Elapidae: e.g. cobra, krait, coral snake.
  4. Viperidae: e.g. Russell’s viper, saw-scaled viper.
  5. Hydrophidae: e.g. Sea snakes.

Difference between Poisonous and Non-Poisonous Snakes

The following image will just clear out all doubts as to how you are going to quickly find out if the snake is venomous:

Common Non-Poisonous Snakes in India

  1. Rat snake (Dhaman Snake)
  2. Vine snake
  3. Bronze back tree snake
  4. Banded kukri
  5. Sand boa

Dhaman Snake is the most common non-poisonous snake found in India and is also known as Rat Snake. Non-poisonous snakes, at times, may resemble poisonous snakes and create confusion.

Features of Common Poisonous Snakes in India

Common cobra

Zoological name: Naja naja
Common names: Common cobra, nag


  • Common cobras are usually brown or black in color
  • The head is covered with shields. The third supra-labial shield touches the eye and nose
  • A small wedge-shaped scale called a cuneate is present between the 4th and 5th infra-labials
  • Pupils are round
  • The hood is present. The dorsal aspect of the hood may have a monocellate (monocele) or binocellate (spectacle) mark. The ventral surface of the hood has two dark spots
  • Fangs are short, grooved, and situated anteriorly
  • The tail is cylindrical. Caudal scales (scales on the undersurface of the tail) are divided and double
  • Venom — neurotoxic

Common Krait

Zoological name: Bungarus caeruleus
Common name: Indian krait, common krait, Maniyar, Kawadya


  • Usually, steel blue or black in color with single or paired white bands on the back. The bands are more distinct toward the tail
  • Pupils are round
  • Large hexagonal scale present over the back
  • The 4th infra-labial scale is the largest scale of other infra-labial scales
  • The subcaudal (ventral scales distal to vent) are undivided and entire
  • Fangs are short, grooved, and situated anteriorly
  • Venom — neurotoxic

Banded Krait

Zoological name: Bungarus fasciatus
Common name: Banded krait


  • Inverted “V” shaped mark on the head
  • Broad black and yellow glistening bands encircle the body. On cross-section, the bands are triangular in shape
  • As per habitat, the snake is shy in nature and often seen basking near water bodies usually in the morning hours
  • Venom — neurotoxic

Saw Scaled Viper

Zoological name: Echis carinatus
Common names: Carpet viper, phoorsa, afai


  • Aggressive snake
  • Viviparous
  • Usually brown in color and grows up to 1.5 to 2 feet
  • Head triangular with small scale. White “arrow mark” or “spear mark” may be present on the head
  • Pupils are vertical
  • A wavy white line (zig-zag pattern) may present on each flank
  • Diamond-shaped markings over the back
  • Belly scales are broad and cover the entire width
  • The scales of the viper are serrated, saw-like thus named saw scale viper
  • Fangs are long, curved, hollow, channelized, and hinged
  • Venom — vasculotoxic and hemotoxic
  •  (Can also be remembered as 5 V’s; V= viper, V=viviparous, V=vertical pupil, V=v shaped head (triangular), V=vasculotoxic venom)

Russell’s Viper

Zoological name: Vipera russelli
Common name: Kander, ghonas


  • The head is large, flat, and triangular with small scales. A White V-shaped mark is present on the head
  • Pupils are vertical
  • Large nostrils
  • The body is stout and fatty with a brown or yellowish color
  • Body scales are semi-elliptical
  • Three rows of chained dark spots present on the back
  • Tail is narrow and short. Scales are divided into two rows
  • Fang are long, curved, hollow, channelized and hinged
  • When disturbed, makes a loud and hissing sound
  • Venom — Vasculotoxic and hemotoxic

Sea Snakes

  • Sea snakes are usually bluish, grayish or greenish in color. They have prominent nostrils and are situated on the top of snout
  • Body is flat and belly scales are not broad
  • Tail is flattened and paddle shaped
  • Venom — myotoxic


Basically snake venom are of three types, namely neurotoxic, haemotoxic and myotoxic venom.

Types of venom are:

Neurotoxic Venom

  • Origin—Common in Elapidae snakes, e.g. krait, cobra, etc.
  • Action—Acts like Curare, mainly on the motor nerve cells and results in muscular paralysis, the muscles are affected in following order:
  • >Firstly—Muscles of the mouth
  • >Secondly—Muscles of the throat
  • >Finally—Muscles of respiration
  • Symptoms at bite site—Local manifestations are least with neurotoxic venom snake bite
  • Other symptoms—Convulsions may be seen with Cobra venom (Krait venom produces only paralysis)

Haemotoxic Venom

  • Origin—Common in Viperidae snakes, e.g. Pit viper (Crotalidae); Pit-less viper (Russell’s viper, Saw scaled viper/Phoorsa/Echis/Echis Carinata), and Bamboo snake (Common green pit viper)
  • Action—Acts by cytolysis of endothelium of blood vessels, lysis of red cells and other tissue cells, and coagulation disorders. All of these can lead to:
  • >Severe swelling with oozing of blood and spreading cellulitis at the bite site. Blood from such patients fails to clot even on adding thrombin, because of very low levels of fibrin.
  • >Necrosis of renal tubules, and
  • >Functional disturbances like convulsions, due to intracerebral hemorrhage.

Myotoxic Venom

  • Origin—Common in hydrophidae or sea snakes
  • Action—Produces generalized muscular pain, followed by:
  • >Myoglobinuria within 3 to 5 hours
  • >Death usually occurs due to respiratory failure

Fatal Dosage for Venom?

Depending upon snake type, some common snake venoms with dosage toxicity are:

Clinical Features

The signs and symptoms of snake bite vary depending on the snake that bites:

Non-Poisonous Snake

  1. Fear and apprehension
  2. Sweating
  3. The patient may be in a state of shock with a feeble pulse, hypotension, syncope, rapid and shallow breathing
  4. Bite area — may show multiple teeth marks

Poisonous snake

Elapid Bite

Local Features:

  • Fang marks
  • Burning pain
  • Swelling and discoloration are sometimes associated with some blisters
  • Serosanguinous discharge from bite site
  • In comparison with viper bite, local manifestations are milder in elapid bite

Systemic features:

  • Pre-paralytic stage — characterized by vomiting, headache, giddiness, weakness, lethargy
  • Paralytic stage — characterized by spreading paralytic features with ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, drowsiness, dysarthria, convulsions, bulbar paralysis, respiratory failure, and death

Viperid bite

Local features:

  • Rapid swelling of the bite site
  • Discoloration
  • Blister formation — may extend to the entire limb and even spread to the trunk
  • Bleeding from the bite site
  • Pain

Systemic features:

  • Generalized bleeding—epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematemesis, bleeding gums, hematuria, melaena, hemorrhagic areas over skin and mucosa
  • Shock
  • Renal failure

Hydrophid bite

Local features:

  • Local swelling
  • Pain

Systemic features:

  • Myalgia
  • Muscle stiffness
  • Myoglobinuria
  • Renal failure


Diagnosis depends on:

  1. Identification of fang marks
  2. Identification of snake—vide supra
  3. Laboratory methods

Fang marks

Usually, two fang marks in form of a puncture wound can be noticed. The puncture wounds are usually separated from each other by a distance varying from 8 mm to 4 cm depending on the type of poisonous snake.

At times, due to sideswiping, a single mark may be produced or if the area is bitten multiple times, it may result in more fang marks.

Laboratory methods

  • Complete blood count—leucocytosis may be evident with thrombocytopenia
  • Smear — hemolysed and fragmented RBCs
  • Increased prothrombin time and increased partial thromboplastin time
  • Immunodiagnosis — consists of:
  1. Immunodiffusion
  2. Counter-current immunoelectrophoresis
  3. ELISA
  4. Radioimmunoassay


General Measures

Non-poisonous snakebite:

  • Allay the anxiety and fear
  • Reassure the patients that all snakes are not poisonous
  • Avoid alcohol or morphine, for these, can increase the rate of absorption of venom

First aid and field management

  • Reassurance
  • Limit the systemic spread of venom by immobilizing the affected part (e.g. limb)
  • For Viperid bites, the bitten limb should be splinted if possible and kept at approximately heart level
  • For elapid or sea snakebites, the Australian pressure immobilization technique is beneficial. In this method, the entire bitten limb is wrapped with an elastic or crepe bandage and then splinted
  • Tourniquet—a proximal lymphatic-occlusion constriction band or tourniquet may limit the spread of venom if applied within 30 minutes. The tourniquet should be applied such that it does not prevent the arterial flow of blood and the distal pulsation should be appreciated

Hospital Management

  • Monitor vital signs, cardiac rhythm, oxygen saturation, and urine output
  • The level of local edema/swelling/erythema in the bitten limb should be marked and the circumference should be measured every 15 minutes until the swelling has stabilized
  • Intravenous access with fluid resuscitation. If needed, vasopressors (e.g. dopamine) should be administered
  • Blood and urine should be collected for laboratory evaluation
  • Care of bite site — apply dry sterile dressings. A splint may be applied
  • Tetanus immunization should be updated as appropriate
  • If the swelling in the affected limb continues and impending tissue perfusion causes muscle compartment syndrome, intra-compartmental pressure should be checked. If pressure is elevated prompt surgical consultation should be obtained while antivenin continues
  • Antivenin therapy—antivenin should be administered only when indicated. Antivenins are available as monovalent (i.e. species-specific) or polyvalent. In India, polyvalent antivenin is available that is effective against the common cobra, common krait, Russell’s viper, and saw-scaled viper. The antivenin should be administered with caution. Usually, the antivenins are of equine origin and carry the risk of anaphylaxis or delayed-hypersensitivity type of reactions. Prior to the administration of antivenin infusion, the patient should receive appropriate loading doses of intravenous antihistamines. The antivenin should be administered as an intravenous infusion. It should be dissolved in 500 ml of normal saline or Ringer’s lactate or 5% dextrose for adults and 20 ml/kg for children
  • Severe hemorrhage or bleeding may require blood or fresh frozen plasma
  • If there are features of neurotoxicity, neostigmine may be required. Every injection of neostigmine should be preceded with atropine
  • Oxygen, ventilatory support
  • Management of renal failure on the usual line

Adverse reactions to antivenin

  • Anaphylaxis
  • Delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction

Deep Venous Thrombosis vs Varicose Veins

The two clinical terms are a nightmare for any physician because one can kill a patient, and the other can be managed at home.

If you have sore legs, you are tempted to know the difference between DVT and Varicose veins.

Deep Venous Thrombosis is a medical emergency that requires urgent care and treatment. It can be fatal if missed.

On the other hand, Varicose veins are benign, dilated tortuous veins that appear in the legs and are not harmless unless complication develops.

Have you tried the Do I have DVT in my Leg Quiz?

What is DVT?

DVT stands for Deep Venous Thrombosis. This a life-threatening condition where a blood clot forms in your body, usually from the lower legs. This can further travel to your lung and cause sudden death.

What are the Dangerous Signs of DVT?

If you have calf swelling and pain on backward bending and contracting of your foot, this is most likely Deep Venous Thrombosis.

It is often diagnosed based on Well’s score which is a diagnostic difference between DVT and Varicose veins. This is discussed as follows.

Well’s Score

Interpretation of Well’s Score

The threshold is set by 2. This is further clarified as follows:

  • When to say DVT Likely or Unlikely?
    • Well’s Score >_2 = DVT Likely
    • Well’s Score <2 = DVT Unlikely

You can have calf discomfort or tightness, as well as swelling, redness, and non-pitting edema (swelling that does not resolve on pressure) of the ankle or legs.

The doctor may test you for Homan’s sign and see if there is an induction of calf pain on dorsiflexion (on backward bending and contracting of your foot) of your foot.

Predisposing factors for DVT include previous heart disease, varicose veins, obesity, long travel, and immobilization for more than 4 days.

The two important points to note:

Phlegmasia cerulae dolens

A cyanotic hue is produced by deoxygenated hemoglobin in sluggish veins.

Phlegmasia alba dolens

In DVT, a significantly edematous limb causes a rise in interstitial pressure that exceeds capillary perfusion pressure.

This causes pallor (also known as alba or whiteness) of the limb.

If a diagnosis of Deep Venous Thrombosis is suspected, you will be asked to undergo a series of tests.

These will involve D-Dimer level assay, USG or Doppler Ultrasound, Impedance plethysmography, and Venography.

The aim is to prevent the most dangerous complication of DVT- Pulmonary embolism.

Signs of DVT

Clinical signs are landmarks for the difference between DVT and Varicose veins. Having a good grip on these help in making a timely diagnosis.

Homan’s Sign

Elicitation of calf pain on dorsiflexion of the foot

Moses Sign

If pain is induced when the calf muscle is squeezed forwards against the tibia but not when the calf muscle is compressed from side to side, the indication is positive.

This sign is also known as Bancroft’s sign. However, sensitivity and specificity are questionable.

Treatment of Deep Venous Thromboembolism

DVT needs early treatment including emergency drugs and swift care to avoid thrombosis and death.

The following steps usually involve the management depending on the scenario.

  • Extremity elevation and bed rest are used to treat the condition.
  • In the limb, an elastic stocking may be employed. Anticoagulation is initiated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), with a PTT objective of twice normal.
  • When the INR is within the desired range, warfarin is begun immediately and LMWH is terminated (i.e. 2.5)
  • When compared to unfractionated heparin, LMWH does not require coagulation factor monitoring and has a lower risk of bleeding.
  • An NSAID may be used to treat limb discomfort and edema.

Varicose Veins

The varicose vein is a relatively benign condition and mostly does not even require treatment.

However, underlying causes must be ruled out to make the diagnosis clear.

Features of Varicose Veins

  • In the lower leg, there are dilated tortuous veins
  • There is discomfort, irritation, or ulceration (medial)
  • Leg heaviness


Risk Factors

  • A job involving prolonged standing
  • Pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Old age>65 years


Your doctor may ask for a Duplex Ultrasound to rule out any other concerning cause.


There are several treatment options for varicose veins these days. Some of them include:

  • Minimal invasive procedures (preferred)
    • Radiofrequency ablation
    • Endovenous laser therapy
    • Sclerotherapy
  • Surgical removal of the vein
  • Compression hosiery (during pregnancy)

Difference between DVT and Varicose Veins

The differences between Deep Venous Thrombosis and Varicose veins have been summarised as follows:

SymptomVaricose VeinsDVT
Surface temperatureNormalWarm
Peripheral Arterial PulsationNormalAbsent
Calf pain at dorsiflexion of the footNonePresent
EdemaMay be presentMay be present
Cyanosis (blue discoloration)NoneIndicates severe obstruction
Collateral superficial veinsNonePresent


DVT is an extremely crucial diagnosis that demands prompt care and management.

If one has any of the signs mentioned above, he should seek care in A&E instantly. This is life-threatening and demands instantaneous intervention.

If you have any queries, please leave them in the comments box below. We would love to hear your feedback.

Ramdas Nayak Pathology PDF Latest Edition Free Download


No doubt pathology is disgusting for Second Year MBBS students. It is gruesome and tiring and exhausting to study all those slides and memorize them. In this post, we will provide the Ramdas Nayak Pathology PDF latest edition for you to download for free. The links are provided directly from Google Drive.

Ramdas Nayak Pathology PDF Book

As we previously mentioned, it is very difficult to understand pathology slides and mug them up. For some, this is where one can make a career, while others just want to get rid of this subject.

Ramdas Nayak Pathology is a well-written book for second-year medical students who want to learn topics quickly.

It is advised that all students utilize this book to grasp fundamental concepts and refresh their knowledge throughout tests. Students should emphasize the word in bold characters that symbolizes the keywords more.

Many students aim to get a high ranking in postgraduate entrance tests after completing an undergraduate degree. The majority of graduates are unable to answer multiple-choice questions (MCQs) in pathology admission examinations just by reading standard pathology textbooks.

The Ramdas Nayak Pathology book has been written to give material that will help you answer these MCQs. Pathology questions that are commonly expected during undergraduate exams are also supplied in appropriate areas. This book can be used as a quick overview of pathology for even postgraduate pathologists.


The following updates have been made in the latest edition of Ramdas Nayak Pathology PDF:

  • Section 2 has been expanded to include hematology and clinical pathology.
  • Nutritional problems are covered in Chapter 9.
  • This version has been thoroughly reviewed, updated, and improved in every way, and it is a complete guidebook for acing all pathology tests.
  • Figures and graphics in a few chapters have been replaced by higher-quality photomicrographs or illustrations.
  • For simple comprehension, several drawings, gross pictures, photomicrographs, tables, text boxes, flow charts, and X-rays have been included.
  • Appendices include information on numerous significant bodies and their related problems, as well as information on important cells in various lesions and pathognomonic structures in disorders.
  • Appendix 3 in this version contains the reference values for numerous common and relevant laboratory tests.


This book is divided into two sections: general pathology and systemic pathology. It has 23 chapters.

Section 1: Pathology in general: Cellular adaptations, inflammation, tissue healing, chronic inflammation, hemodynamic disorders, immunological diseases, neoplasia, and genetics are among the topics covered.

Section 2 covers vascular, cardiac, respiratory, gastrointestinal, liver and biliary tract, pancreas, kidney, male and female genital tract, bones, endocrines, skin, and central nervous system diseases and disorders.

350 drawings, 82 gross photographs, 162 photomicrographs, 152 tables, 3 X-rays, and a clinical image have been provided to provide a basic grasp of the subject.

Appendices include information on a variety of major entities and their associated issues, as well as crucial cells in various lesions and pathognomonic structures in illnesses.

The contents of Ramdas Nayak Pathology PDF latest edition are as follows:

  1. Cellular responses to injury and stress
  2. Inflammation Acute
  3. Wound care
  4. Chronic inflammation
  5. Hemodynamics, thromboembolism, and shock disorders
  6. Immune system dysfunction
  7. Neoplasia
  8. Disorders that run in families
  9. Vein diseases are conditions that affect the veins.
  10. Heart problems
  11. Pulmonary Disorders
  12. Oral and salivary gland illnesses
  13. Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract
  14. Disorders of the Hepatobiliary Tract
  15. Pancreatic Disorders
  16. Renal and urinary tract disorders
  17. Male Genital Tract Disorders
  18. Female Genital Tract Disorders
  19. Breast discomfort
  20. Endocrine Disruptions
  21. Dermatological disorders
  22. Diseases affecting the bones and joints
  23. Central Nervous System Disorders

Ramdas Nayak Pathology Latest Edition

Ramadas Nayak, MBBS MD

  • Professor and Head
    • Department of Pathology
    • Yenepoya Medical College
    • Mangaluru, Karnataka, India
  • Formerly, Head
    • Department of Pathology
    • Kasturba Medical College, Mangaluru
    • Karnataka, India

Ramdas Nayak Pathology PDF Latest Edition Download

BookExam Preparatory Manual for Undergraduates Pathology
AuthorRamadas Nayak
ForewordK Ramnarayan
File Size70.8MB
File TypePDF
Link TypeGoogle Drive
Number of Pages840
Last Updated18/01/2023

Ramdas Nayak Pathology PDF 2nd Edition book may be downloaded from Google Drive using the links provided below. Please keep in mind that this is the most recent edition of the book.

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Anatomy Mnemonics for MBBS Students First Year Notes

Many students often find themselves in trouble with First year Anatomy Mnemonics during MBBS. Indeed they work hard compared to their upcoming semesters, but still, they find it difficult to handle the stress. They move towards making short notes and mnemonics and waste a lot of time.

Here, we have made some mnemonics for those students looking for Anatomy Mnemonics, including Upper Limb, Lower Limb, Thorax, and Head & Neck. Just save the page or bookmark us so you don’t spend your crucial time before exams making mnemonics.

Anatomy Mnemonics

Below are the anatomy mnemonics you will ever need. They are a mixture of the Upper limb, Lower limb, Thorax, and Head & Neck. If you have any other, please do mention them in the comments section below, we will love to update them with your help!

Deep Muscles of the Back

  • “I Love Spaghetti – Some More Ragu”: Iliocostalis, Longissimis, Spinalis – Semispinalis, Multifidus, Rotatores

Brachial Plexus

  • “Really Thirsty? Drink Cold Beer” or “Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beers”: Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, Branches
  • “MARMU” (terminal nerves): Musculocutaneous, Axillary, Radial, Median, Ulnar

Muscles Inserting into Humerus

  • “A lady between two majors”

The Pectoralis major attaches to the lateral lip of the bicipital groove, the teres major attaches to the medial lip of the bicipital groove, and the latissimus dorsi attaches to the floor of the bicipital groove. The “late” is between two “majors”

Carpal Bones

(4 proximal, lateral to medial; 4 distal, lateral to medial)

  • “She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catch Her” (Thanks to Naman Sachdeva for this)
  • “Some Lovers/Lions Try Positions That They Can’t Handle”:

Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezoid, Trapezium, Capitate, Hamate.

  • “TrapeziUM at the thUMb”
  • “TrapeziOID is inSIDE”

“Flexor carpi superficialis splits in two, to permit profundus to pass through”

Radial Nerve Innervations

  • “BEST”: Brachioradialis, Extensors, Supinator, Triceps.

Median Nerve Innervations

  • “2LOAF”: Lateral 2 Lumbricals, Opponens pollicis, Abductor pollicis brevis, Flexor pollicis brevis.

Rotator Cuff Muscles

(3 greater tubercle; 1 lesser tubercle)

  • “SITS”: Superspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis

Transverse Scapular Ligament

  • Army over (bridge), Navy under (bridge)
  • Artery goes over and Nerve goes under the ligament

Cubital Fossa

(lateral to medial)

  • “TAN”: Tendon (biceps brachii), Artery (brachial), Nerve (medial)


  • “PAD”: Palmar (hand) muscles ADduct
  • “DAB”: Dorsal (hand) muscles ABduct
  • “All For One And One For All” (medial to lateral):

Abductor digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi, Opponens digiti minimi, Adductor policis, Opponens pollicis, Flexor pollicis brevis, Abductor pollicis brevis

Axillary Artery Branches

  • “Save The Lions And Protect Species”: Supreme/Superior Thoracic Artery,

Thoracoacromial Artery, Lateral Thoracic, Anterior Circumflex Humeral, Posterior Circumflex Humeral, Subscapular (thoracodorsal and circumflex scapular)

Thoracoacromial Artery Branches

  • “CAlifornia Police Department”: Clavicular, Acromial, Pectoral, Deltoid

Pectoral Nerves

  • “Lateral is less, medial is more”

Lateral pectoral nerve goes through the pectoralis major, while the medial pectoral nerve goes through both the pectoralis major and minor.

Deep Posterior Leg Muscles

  • “Down The Hatch”: flexor Digitorum longus, Tibialis posterior, flexor Hallucis longus

Medial Malleolus

(anterior to posterior)

  • “Tom, Dick, And Very Nervous Harry”

Tibialis posterior, flexor Digitorum longus tendon, posteriotibial Artery, posteriotibial Vein, tibial Nerve, flexor Hallucis longus


(connections to pes anserinus)

Sartorius (Femoral nerve), Gracilis (Obturator nerve), SemiTendinosus (Sciatic nerve)

Femoral Triangle Boundaries

Please suggest any anatomy mnemonics for these if you have any. Here are ours:

  • “So I May Always Love Sally”: Superiorly – Inguinal ligament, Medially – Adductor longus, Laterally – Sartorius

Order of Structures in Femoral Triangle / Groin

(lateral to medial)

  • “NAVEL”: Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty space, Lymphatics

Leg Anterior Compartment

  • “The Hospitals Are Not Dirty Places”

Tibialis anterior, extensor Hallucis longus,anterior tibial Artery, deep fibular Nerve, extensor Digitorum longus, Peroneus Tertius

Cruciate Ligament Paths and Insertions

  • “PAMs ApPLes”

Posterior [passes]; Anteriorly [and inserts] Medially; Anterior [passes]; Posteriorly [and inserts] Laterally

Terrible (Unhappy) Triad Knee Injury

(American football injury)

  • “ATM” for money-maker

Anterior cruciate ligament, Tibial (medial) collateral ligament, Medial meniscus

Leg Nerves

  • “FED”: Fibular nerve Everts and Dorsiflexes the foot
  • “TIP”: Tibial nerve Inverts and Plantarflexes the foot


(plantar region of the foot)

  • Layer 1: Abductor Hallucis, Flexor digitorum brevis, Abductor digiti minimi
  • Layer 2: Two tendons (Flexor Hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus), Two muscles (lumbricles, quadratus plantae)
  • Layer 3: Flexor Hallucis brevis, Adductor Hallucis (oblique and transverse heads), Flexor digiti minimi brevis

Tarsal Tunnel Contents

(superior to inferior)

  • “Tiny Dogs Are Not Hunters”

Tibialis posterior, flexor Digitorum longus, posterior tibial Artery, tibial Nerve, flexor Hallucis longus

Inguinal Canal Walls

(superior moving around in order to posterior)

  • “2MALT: 2M, 2A, 2L, 2T”

Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles: internal oblique Muscle, transverse abdominus Muscle

Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses: Aponeurosis of external oblique, Aponeurosis of internal oblique

Lower wall (floor): 2 Ligaments: inguinal Ligament, lacunar Ligament

Posterior wall: 2Ts: Transversalis fascia, conjoint Tendon

Tarsal Bones

  • “Traverse City (is) Noted (for) MIchigan’s Lovely Cherries”

Talus Calcaneus (new row), Navicular (new row), Medial Intermediate cuneiforms, Lateral cuneiform, Cuboid

Hip Lateral Rotators

(Femur Greater Trochanter Attachments)

  • “P-GO-GO-Q”

Piriformis, Gemellus superior, Obturator internus, Gemellus inferior, Obturator externus and Quadratus femoris

Ribs (superior to inferior), Neck, and Sublingual Hiatus (medial to lateral)

  • “VAN”

Vein, Artery, Nerve

Vagal Nerve Path Into Thorax

“Not Left Behind”: Left is anterior (not behind), Right is posterior

Lung Vessels

  • “RALS”

Right lung artery is Anterior to the bronchus, Left lung artery is Superior to the bronchus

Structures Piercing The Diaphragm

  • “I 8 10 Eggs At 12”

T8 = IVC, T10 = Esophagus, T12 = Aorta

Heart Valves

  • “RAT, LAMB”

Right Atrial Tricuspid, Left Atrial Mitral (Bicuspid)

  • “LAB RAT”

Left Atrial Bicuspid, Right Atrial Tricuspid

Spinal Nerves

The anatomy mnemonics for Spinal nerves are:

  • “C3-4-5 keep the phrenic nerve (or diaphragm) alive”
  • “C5-6-7 raise your arms to heaven” (long thoracic nerve roots innervate serratus anterior)

Scrotum Layers

(superficial to deep)

  • “Some Dang Englishman Called It The Testis”

Skin, Dartos, External spermatic fascia, Cremaster, Internal spermatic fascia, Tunica vaginalis,Testis

Innervation of the Penis

  • “S2,3,4 keep the penis off the floor”

Refers to the innervation of the penis by branches of the pudendal nerve, which is derived from spinal cord levels S2-4. The point, Shoot, Score is Parasympathetic for erection, Sympathetic for ejaculation.

Great Vessels

  • “ABC’S”

Aortic arch gives off the Brachiocephalic trunk, the left Common carotid, and the left Subclavian artery

  • “Boston College Stinks”

Right Brachiocephalic trunk, left Common carotid, left Subclavian artery

Portal Triad

  • “DAV”

Bile Duct, Hepatic Artery, Portal Vein

Liver Lobes

  • “GQ”

The Gallbladder is next to the Quadrate lobe

Pathway After Stomach

  • “Dow Jones Industrial Climbing Average Closing Stock Report”

Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Cecum, Subacute Appendicitis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Radiology and Treatment OptionsAppendix, Colon (ascending/transverse), Sigmoid colon, Rectum


  • “1,3,5,7,9,11”

It measures 1x3x5 inches, weighs 7 ounces, and lies between ribs 9-11.

Thoracic Duct

  • “The duck is between two gooses.”

duck = thoracic duct

2 gooses = azyGOUS vein and esophaGOUS


  1. “Brent Spiner Gained Lieutenant Commander”

Basale, Spinosum, Granulosum, Lucidum, Corneum

Nasal Cavity Components

  • “Never Call Me Needle Nose!”

external Nares, Conchae, Meatuses, internal Nares, Nasopharynx

Scalp Layers

(superficial to deep)

  • “SCALP”

Skin, Connective tissue, Aponeurosis, Loose areolar tissue, Pericranium

Horner’s Syndrome Symptoms

  • “SPAM”

Sunken eyeballs/Sympathetic plexus (cervical) affected, Ptosis, Anhydrosis, Miosis

Bell’s Palsy Symptoms


  • “BELL’S Palsy”

Blink reflex abnormal, Earache, Lacrimation (deficient, excess), Loss of taste, Sudden onset, Palsy of VII nerve muscles

Potentially Absent Muscles

  • “5 P’s”

Palmaris longus [upper limb], Plantaris [lower limb], Peroneus tertius [lower limb], Pyramidalis [anterior abdominal wall], and Psoas minor [posterior abdominal wall]

Facial Bones

  • “Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh!”

Vomer, Conchae, Nasal, Maxilla, Mandible, Palatine, Zygomatic, Lacrimal

Deep Tendon Reflexes Root Supply

(nursery rhyme)

  • One, two– buckle my shoe
  • Three, four– kick the door
  • Five, six– pick up sticks.
  • Seven, eight– shut the gate

S1,2 = ankle jerk

L3,4 = knee jerk

C5,6 = biceps and brachioradialis

C7,8 = triceps

Supra-orbital Fissure

Structures that pass through it:

  • “Luscious French Tarts Sit Naked In Anticipation Of Sex.”

Lacrimal nerve, Frontal nerve, Trochlear nerve, Superior branch of oculomotor nerve, Nasociliary nerve, Inferior branch of oculomotor nerve, Abducent nerve, Ophthalmic veins, Sympathetic nerves

Cranial Bones

  • “Old People From Texas Eat Spiders”

Occipital, Parietal, Frontal, Temporal, Ethnoid, Sphenoid

Cranial Nerves

The anatomy mnemonics for Cranial nerves given below are the best and most widely used by medical students. Perhaps you have heard of them already:

  • I On (Olfactory)
  • II Old (Optic)
  • III Olympus (Oculomotor)
  • IV Towering (Trochlear)
  • V Tops, (Trigeminal)
  • VI A (Abducens)
  • VII Finn (Facial)
  • VIII And (Auditory)
  • IX German (Glossopharyngeal)
  • X Viewed (Vagus)
  • XI Astounding (Accessory)
  • XII Hops (Hypoglossal)

Another one is: Oh Oh Oh Try Try Again Failure Victory Give Value And Happiness (Thanks to Ali for mentioning it in comments)

where O- Olfactory, O- Optic, O- Occulomotor, T- Trochlear, T- Trigeminal, A- Abducens, F- Facial, V-Vestibulocochlear (Auditory), G- Glossopharyngeal, V- Vagus, A- Accessory, H- Hypoglossal

  • I Some (Sensory)
  • II Say (Sensory)
  • III Marry (primarily Motor)
  • IV Money, (primarily Motor)
  • V But (Both)
  • VI My (primarily Motor)
  • VII Brother (Both)
  • VIII Says (Sensory)
  • IX Big (Both)
  • X Bras (Both)
  • XI Matter (primarily Motor)
  • XII More (primarily Motor)

Extraocular Muscles

Anatomy mnemonics for Extra-ocular muscles are:

  • “LR6 – SO4 – rest3” or “(SO4LR6)3”

LR6 Lateral rectus –> VI abducens

SO4 Superior Oblique –> IV Trochlear

Remaining 4 eyeball movers –> III oculomotor

Branches of Subclavian Artery

  • “VT is Cold”

Vertebral, Thyrocervical trunk, Costocervical trunk

External Carotid Artery Branches

  • “Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students” or “Suzy Always Lays

Flat On Pillows Making Sweets Terrific”: Superior thyroid, Ascending pharyngeal, Lingual, Facial, Occipital, Posterior auricular, Maxillary, Superficial Temporal

Internal Jugular Vein

(inferior to superior)

  • “Medical Schools Let Confident People In”

Middle thyroid, Superior thyroid, Lingual, Common facial, Pharyngeal, Inferior petrosal sinus

Facial Nerve Branches

  • “Please, To Zanzibar By Motor Car” or “Ten Zombies Bought My Car”

Posterior auricular, Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Masseteric, Cervical

Trigeminal Nerve – Where Branches Exit Skull

  • “Standing Room Only”

Superior orbital fissure (V1), foramen Rotundum (V2), foramen Ovale (V3)

Ansa Cervicalis Nerves

  • “GHost THought SOmeone STupid SHot Irene”

GenioHyoid, ThyroHyoid, Superior Omohyoid, SternoThyfoid, SternoHyoid, Inferior omohyoid

Cervical Plexus – Arrangement of Important Nerves

  • “GLAST”

4 compass points, clockwise from the north on the right side of the neck: Great auricular, Lesser occipital, Accessory nerve (pops out between L and S), Supraclavicular, Transverse cervical

CN V – V3 Innervated Muscles

(Brachial Arch 1 Derivatives)

  • “M.D. My T.V.”

Mastication (masseter, temporalis, pterygoids), Digastric (anterior belly), MYlohyoid, tensor Tympani, tensor Veli palatine

V3 Sensory Branches

  • “Buccaneers Are Inferior Linguists”

Buccal, Auriculotemporal, Inferior alveolar, Lingual

Facial Expression Muscles

(Making A Face To Say PSS)

  • “PSS”

Posterior belly of digastric, Stapedius, Stylohyoid

Lacrimal Nerve Course

(Story of 8 L’s)

  • Lacrimal nerve runs on Lateral wall of orbit above Lateral rectus, then Lets communicating branch join in, then supplies Lacrimal gland, then Leaves it and supplies Lateral upper eye Lid


These will help you in competitive exams such as NEET PG as well as PLAB. Additionally, some of them remain with us for a lifetime in our clinical practice.

Have any other anatomy mnemonics? Do share them in the comments section below, we will so love to hear new anatomy mnemonics from our readers!

6 Steps for TB Test for UK Visa: Complete Guide for Medical

In this post, I will share steps for getting a TB test for a UK visa while simultaneously sharing my experience at the Tuberculosis centre in Delhi, India.

I recently passed my PLAB 1 exam and required a TB clearance certificate for my Visa. This is mandatory if you planning to stay in the UK for more than 6 months.

TB Test for UK Visa

A tuberculosis test is mandatory if you are planning to move to the UK for more than 6 months. This is true if:

  • If you reside in any of the countries that require TB testing
  • If you have lived in any of the countries requiring tuberculosis tests in the last 6 months

Who Does Not Need Screening?

TB test is not required if:

  • You are a UK-accredited diplomat.
  • You are a returning UK resident who has not been gone for more than 2 years.
  • You have resided in a nation where TB screening is not needed by the UK for at least 6 months and have been absent from that country for no more than 6 months.

List of Countries Requiring TB Test for UK Visa

Some of the countries that require tuberculosis screening are:

  • India
  • Pakistan
  • Bangladesh
  • Nigeria
  • Nepal
  • Sri Lanka

A full list can be found here.

TB Test for UK Visa in India

You can take the screening test only in the approved clinics. No other certificates from any other testing centre are valid and are considered void even if you try.

Some of the following clinics are approved if you wish to get a medical test for a UK visa in India:

New Delhi

Max Medcentre

Address: Max Medcentre, Lajpat Nagar

Contact: +91-8860444888 / +91-8800334457

Sadhu Vaswani Mission Medical Centre

Address: Sadhu Vaswani Mission Medical Centre, Shanti Niketan

Contact: 011-24111562/ 011-24114316 / 011-24111693


Clinical Diagnostic Centre

Address: Clinical Diagnostic Centre, Nariman Point

Contact: +91-2222866100 / +91-2222022060

Lilavati Hospital

Address: Lilavati Hospital, Bandra Reclamation

Contact: 022-265680008248 / 022-265680008283

We have highlighted only a couple from the complete list in India. If you are in another country, you can find help here.

Documents Required

There are three documents required for a TB test for UK Visa:

  1. Original Passport
  2. Passport Photocopies (front and back)
  3. Two Passport-size Photographs

Tb test for UK Visa in India

How to Get Tuberculosis Test for UK Visa done

Total Time: 1 day

  1. Book an Appointment

    You will have to contact the approved clinics and book an appointment. A full list can be found here.

  2. Carry Documents Required

    There are three documents required for TB Test. These include:

    1. Original Passport
    2. Passport Photocopies (front and back)
    3. Two Passport-size Photographs

  3. Reach Approved Clinic

    Upon reaching the clinic, you will be asked to fill out a form. This will require your name, address, and type of visa required. Once done, you will be asked to do the payment and wait in the queue depending on the visitors.

  4. Get Chest Xray Done

    The UK Medical Test involves testing for tuberculosis primarily. This will involve a chest x-ray which will be done in the same sitting. Once your x-ray is done, you will be asked again to wait in the queue.

  5. Review by Physician

    After some wait, you will be called by the physician who will provide you with the TB Clearance Certificate. If there is any active Tuberculosis, you will be asked to receive treatment accordingly.

  6. Receiving the TB Clearance Certificate

    Following the review, the documents will be submitted to the receptionist who will then stamp them along with your passport-size photograph. This is the last step of the process.

My Experience

I booked an appointment through Max Medcentre. The process was pretty smooth and done in a single day. There is an additional tip I will drop for you:

Carry a pen and a mask. This way, you won't have to buy it. Usually, there is a store in front of the clinic which will provide you with both.

The staff was friendly and I had no trouble getting the certificate. However, it does take time as you have to sit idle for a couple of hours while waiting for your number.

One last thing, you don’t need to change and wear a gown. The chest x-ray is done without it, but you need to remove any heavy outfits such as jackets or sweaters if you are wearing one. Lastly, any metal objects should be thoroughly removed.

TB Test Fess for UK Visa

The rates are usually written on the list. For Max Medcentre, it was 2650 INR. These can vary from clinic to clinic and may change over time. Only a chest x-ray is done for UK Visa medical test.

When you contact them for the first time, they will tell you the fees and the documents required. If not, make sure you ask them these questions yourself.

Additional Resources for PLAB Guidance

Other guides you can check out:


Which TB test is required for the UK visa?

A chest x-ray is done to look for any signs of TB. The physician will tell you if there are changes. If there are none, you will receive the clearance. If there are, a sputum test will be required to look for active tuberculosis.

If found, you will be asked to receive the treatment for at least 6 months as advised by your physician.

What are the requirements for the TB test for the UK Visa?

There are documents which you must provide:

1. Original Passport
2. Passport photocopies (back and front)
3. Passport-sized photos

Why does the UK require a TB test?

A Tuberculosis screening is required because:

1. To detect the presence of Lung TB and prevent the individual from worsening and infecting others.
2. To screen individuals who intend to stay in the UK for more than six months and are traveling from a country where tuberculosis is prevalent.

Can I apply for a UK visa without a TB test?

If you are applying for a tourist visa with a stay of fewer than 6 months, you are not required to take the screening test. Additionally, people are not required to go testing if:

1. You are a diplomat recognized by the UK.
2. You are a resident of the UK who hasn’t left for more than two years.
3. You have spent at least six months living in a country where the UK does not need TB screening and have spent no longer than six months away from that country.

What happens if I have a positive TB test?

If you are found positive, your physician will refer you to a minimum six-month treatment plan. No clearance certificate will be issued.

You will have to inform local, regional or national authorities. Once your treatment is complete, a re-screening can be scheduled and a certificate can be issued if the tuberculosis is no longer detected.

What if I had TB previously?

If you had Tuberculosis previously and it is no longer detected in the screening program, you will be issued a clearance certificate. The Visa application procedure will not be impacted by a prior TB diagnosis if the applicant is later declared TB-free.

How many months is the TB test valid for UK Visa?

The certificate is valid for six months from the date of issuing. An additional screening test for latent (inactive) TB can be offered by health authorities in addition to the certificate upon arrival in the UK.

Are Pregnant women required to undergo TB testing?

If a woman is pregnant and requires a Tuberculosis test for UK Visa, she can be offered one of the three:

1. An additional barrier that involves a shield to protect the mother and unborn child, especially in the second and third trimesters.
2. A sputum test instead of a chest x-ray which may take up to 8 weeks.
3. To postpone the entire procedure until delivery.

Are children required to get TB testing done for a UK visa?

Children under 11 years of age are usually not required to undergo the screening. However, this is decided by the physician. A questionnaire is carried out by the physician which decides whether the testing is required or not.

How much time does it take for getting a TB certificate?

The entire process is usually done in a single day. This depends on your results. If found positive, this can be delayed by at least 6-9 months.

Apurba Sastry Microbiology PDF Latest Edition Free Download

It is tiring and exhausting to study microbiology in the Second year of MBBS. Apurba Sastry Microbiology PDF is one of the finest books one can read to clear the exam. In this post, we will provide you with the latest edition- the 3rd edition of the book for free download.

The links have been updated for 2023 and will provide you essentials of microbiology by Apurba Sastry in PDF format.

Apurba Sastry Microbiology PDF Book

Microbiology is difficult to understand as there are numerous pathogen and histopathological findings one has to study. Looking at the microscope, we often confuse ourselves.

Apurba Sastry book helps students understand the key concepts. Although there are many books available to read, this book has its own place for MBBS students. You can opt for Ananthanarayan and Paniker if you wish so.

This book provides some amazing diagrams, neat and precise headings, and the finest structural organization. The procedures for various steps are beautifully narrated with images.

This book has its own fandom and is considered for use after MBBS as well. Many students opt for it while preparing for the NEET PG exam. Apart from the above-mentioned features, there are in-depth topics and tables which help students memorize important topics in microbiology easily.


The following updates were done in the 3rd Edition of the Apurba Sastry Microbiology PDF book:

  1. Parasitology has been incorporated and therefore it obviates the reading of a separate book.
  2. The Hospital Infection Control section has been thoroughly updated with the inclusion of new topics such as major hAI types,
    monitoring of antimicrobial stewardship, escalation vs de-escalation strategy, donning/doffing of PPE, and transmission-
    based precautions.
  3. ™The General Microbiology section has been meticulously restructured with the inclusion of general virology, general
    parasitology, and general mycology chapters. General bacteriology is reorganized into a single chapter with several
  4. ™Overview chapters have been incorporated in the general microbiology section, which will help in better understanding
    individual organisms when discussed under systemic microbiology.
  5. The sterilization and disinfection chapter has been completely revised based on the hospital’s use of sterilizers and disinfectants;
    and has been shifted to the hospital Infection Control section.
  6. A chapter on CoVID-19 has been added, covering the latest pandemic in detail.
  7. The annexures section has been expanded to include several new topics such as opportunistic infections, transplant infections,
    national health programs for communicable diseases, vector-borne diseases, transfusion-transmitted infections and
    AETCoM in Microbiology.
  8. The AETCoM module has been added as a new annexure, which covers topics pertaining to confidentiality in disclosing
    laboratory reports and demonstration of respect for patient samples.

You can access the bookmarks section to easily navigate through the book.

Suggestions to those studying Microbiology from Apurba Sastry book in the Second Year MBBS are as follows:

  1. Stay active in lectures and classes. Jot down essential points your professors teach you. Use them wisely days before the exam.
  2. Make your own concise notes in your own handwriting. This helps in creating a visual memory which helps recall important topics easily in the exam hall.
  3. Have a better grasp of finds on microscopy. Practicals are relatively difficult and many mug them up. In real scenarios, it becomes disastrous to understand any single of them.
  4. Make your own list of important topics which need to be revised thoroughly before the exam.
  5. You can also read Ananthanarayan and Paniker’s Textbook of Microbiology.


Apurba Sastry Microbiology PDF has divided into two parts over 868 pages. There is a total of 10 sections and 81 chapters.

The first part comprises General Microbiology, Immunology, and hospital Infection Control. The second part ‘Systemic Microbiology (Infectious Diseases)’ comprises several sections, each comprising a first chapter on clinical infective syndrome followed by several chapters covering detailed information about the etiological agents.

Contents of the Essential of Microbiology Apurba Sastry are as follows:

PART I: General Microbiology, Immunology, and Hospital Infection Control

Part 1 consists of 3 sections which are as follows:

Section 1: General Microbiology

  • History and introduction
  • Microscopy
  • Bacteriology in General
  • Virology in general and an overview of viral infections
  • Parasitology in general and an overview of parasitic infections
  • Mycology in general and an overview of fungal infections
  • Microbiota found in healthy people
  • Infectious Disease Epidemiology

Section 2: Immunology

  • Immunity (Innate and Acquired) (Innate and Acquired)
  • Antigen
  • Antibody
  • The reaction of Antigen to Antibody
  • Complement
  • Organs, Cells, and Products of the Immune System
  • Cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Autoimmunity
  • Immunodeficiency Syndromes
  • Immunology and Transplantation
  • Immunoprophylaxis

Section 3: Hospital Infection Control

  • Infections Associated with Healthcare
  • Major Infection Types in Healthcare
  • Disinfection and sterilization
  • Management of Biomedical Waste
  • Injury from a Needle Stick
  • Antibiotic Stewardship
  • Environmental Monitoring (Bacteriology of Water, Air, and Surface)


Part 2 of Apurba Sastry Microbiology PDF consists of 7 sections which are as follows:

Section 4: Bloodstream and Cardiovascular System Infections

  • Infections of the Cardiovascular System: Infective Endocarditis and Acute Rheumatic Fever
  • Infections in the Bloodstream
  • The Symptoms of Enteric Fever (Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi)
  • Infections with Rickettsia
  • Bacterial Bloodstream Infections Including Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, and Borreliosis
  • Viral hemorrhagic fever (VhF), arboviral VhF (Dengue, Chikungunya, and others), filoviral VhF (Ebola and Marburg Virus), hantaviral, and other VhF Agents
  • Babesiosis and Malaria
  • Trypanosomiasis and Visceral Leishmaniasis
  • Filariasis of the Lymphatic System
  • Candidiasis and Mycoses in the System

Section 5: Gastrointestinal (GI) Infections

  • Infectious Gastrointestinal Syndromes
  • S. aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium botulinum, and other pathogens in food
  • Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Shigellosis, Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, and Yersiniosis are all gastrointestinal infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae.
  • Infections caused by cholera, halophilic Vibrio, and Aeromonas
  • Infections in the Gastrointestinal Tract with Bacteria: Helicobacter, Campylobacter, and Clostridioides difficile
  • Rotaviruses and other viruses cause viral gastroenteritis.
  • Intestinal Amoebiasis, Giardiasis, Coccidian Parasitic Infections, Balantidiasis, Blastocystosis, and Other Infections
  • Helminthic infections of the intestine

Section 6: Hepatobiliary System Infections

  • Hepatobiliary and Abdominal Infectious Syndromes
  • Hepatitis Viruses, Yellow Fever, and Other Viral Infections
  • Hepatobiliary parasitic infections include amoebic liver abscess, hydatid disease (Echinococcosis), trematode infections (Fasciola hepatica, Clonorchis, and Opisthorchis), and others.

Section 7: Skin, Soft Tissue, and Musculoskeletal System Infections

  • Skin, Soft Tissue, and Musculoskeletal Infectious Syndromes
  • Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcal Beta-hemolytic Infections
  • Gas gangrene (Clostridium perfringens) and Nonsporing Anaerobe Infections
  • Leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae)
  • Bacterial Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), Actinomycosis, Nocardiosis, Nonvenereal Treponematoses, and Others
  • Herpesviruses (Herpes Simplex, Varicella-zoster, and hhV-6 and 7 Infection), Poxviruses (Smallpox, Molluscum contagiosum), Parvovirus, Measles, Rubella, Coxsackieviruses, and others cause viral exanthems and other cutaneous viral infections.
  • Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Cysticercosis, Tissue Nematodes (Filarial Tissue Nematodes, Dracunculus medinensis, Trichinella spiralis), and Larva Migrans are examples of parasitic infections affecting the skin, soft tissue, and musculoskeletal system.
  • Superficial Fungal Infections, Subcutaneous Fungal Infections, Candidiasis (cutaneous and mucosal), and Penicillium marneffei Infections of the Skin, Soft Tissue, and Musculoskeletal System

Section 8: Respiratory Tract Infections

  • Respiratory Tract Infectious Syndromes
  • Diphtheria, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacterial Pharyngitis
  • Pneumococcal Pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae Pneumonia, and Other Bacterial Lobar Pneumonia
  • Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Legionella cause bacterial atypical (interstitial) pneumonia.
  • Infections with Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
  • Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis)
  • Non-fermenting Gram-negative Bacilli Infection
  • Influenza, Parainfluenza, Mumps, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, and Other Myxovirus Infections of the Respiratory Tract
  • Coronavirus infections, such as Covid-19
  • Respiratory Tract Viral Infections: Rhinovirus, Adenovirus, and Infectious Mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr Virus)
  • Respiratory Tract Parasitic and Fungal Infections

Section 9: Central Nervous System Infections

  • Central Nervous System Infectious Syndromes
  • Meningitis caused by Bacteria
  • Tetanus
  • Poliomyelitis, Coxsackie, Mumps, and Other Viral Meningitis and Myelitis
  • Rabies, HSV Encephalitis, Arboviral Encephalitis (Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile), Nipah and Hendra, Slow Virus and Prion Disease, and Others are examples of viral encephalitis and encephalopathy.
  • Central Nervous System Parasitic and Fungal Infections

Section 10: Urogenital Tract Infections

  • Infectious Urinary Tract Syndromes
  • Infectious Genital Tract Syndromes and Sexually Transmitted Infections


  • Infections with Opportunistic Pathogens
  • Infections after Transplantation
  • Infections that are Emerging and Re-Emerging
  • Biological Warfare—Bioterrorism
  • Infections Acquired in a Laboratory
  • National Communicable Disease Health Programs
  • Ectoparasite infestations and vector-borne infections
  • Infections caused by blood transfusion
  • Microbiology AETCOM
  • Management of Pandemics

Apurba Sastry Microbiology PDF Latest Edition Download

BookEssentials of Microbiology
AuthorApurba Sastry
Co-authorSandhya Bhat
File Size47.3MB
File TypePDF
Link TypeGoogle Drive
Number of Pages868
Last Updated14/01/2023

You can download the 3rd edition of the book through Google Drive using the links provided below. Please keep in mind that this is the most recent edition of the book.

Other Microbiology books you should try for the Second year MBBS:

Hasty NEET PG 2023 Decision leaves Students Ineligible


Many are questioning- ” Is NEET PG 2023 extended?”. No, only the cutoff date for the internship has been extended. On 14th January 2023, NBE announced that they have revised the dates and it is now 30th June instead of 31st March. This comes after several proposals were made to rectify the error and provide a valuable outcome.

However, over 8000 students are left ineligible to appear in the exam and many are requesting the postponement. Students from states like Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Telangana, and Pondicherry are finishing their internship in July.

This renders them ineligible to appear in the exam. An array of efforts from IMA and FORDA appears to be ineffective now as the decision did not cover all of the aspiring students.

Are you sticking to all Updates?

Full Report

On 7th January, NBEMS presented the final verdict on NEET PG 2023 exam. This came after a long wait and much fake news being published in newspaper media (TOI).

The cutoff dates were set for 31st March which set a mass panic and sense of indifference amongst the students. Several petitions were made to rectify the error. Many organizations came up and supported the cause.

On 12th January, Twitter was flooded with tweets that concluded the dates have been extended. This was in response to the meeting that was held between officials and IMA.

On 13th January, the information bulletin at NBEMS was updated and a new announcement was released:

  1. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), Govt. of India vide its email dated 13.01.2023 has revised the cut-off date for completion of the internship for the purpose of eligibility for NEET-PG 2023 to 30th June 2023.
  2. Pursuant to the recommendations of the National Medical Commission vide its letter no. NMC-23(1) (222)/2022/Med./PG dated 13.12.2022 and subsequent approval of the MoHFW, Govt. of India vide its letter No. V.11025/03/2021 – MEP {FTS. 8090901} dated 22.12.2022 and V.11025/03/2021 – MEP {FTS. 8090901} dated 06.01.2023, the cut-off date for completion of internship towards eligibility for NEET- PG 2023 was kept as 31st March 2023.
  3. The last date for submission of online applications is 27th January 2023 (Till 11:55 PM).
NEET PG 2023 Extended

We recently conducted live polls on the issue and over 95% voted the exam should be postponed:


This appears to be a decision made in haste and without considering all the deadlines of students from the entire nation. These are fruitless efforts that have led to nothing but more panic among those who are still ineligible.

Since the dates have been changed on request from IMA, there are no chances left to rectify this error now. The NEET PG 2023 shall be held on 5th March with no further changes, including the postponement or extension.

This is undoubtedly a hardcore stamp from NBE and authorities such as IMA and FORDA, that there is nothing the students can do anymore.

NMC already disdains the students, if they had, proper actions and notifications would have been published with priority to resolve the issue at a more authentic level.

PLAB 1 Remarking Meme
NBE right now

Pleas from Twitter

Some still have hope and trying their best to reach the authorities. We will voice out their concerns here:


Currently, there are two valid options. Either the NEET PG Internship dates should be extended till July or the exam is postponed itself.

The former seems invalid now since NBE hardly keeps its ear open for such requests. And the latter because the previous change in date has made sure that no further changes be considered.

If you are tired and exhausted from trying hard for NEET PG, perhaps you can try seeking other alternatives like the PLAB exam for the UK license.

NEET PG 2023 Latest News, Exam Date, Registration, Documents Required, Eligibility, Admit Card, Results and Counselling

The National Board of Examination (NBE) has announced the NEET PG 2023 exam date. The exam is now going to be held on 5th March 2023.

This entrance exam will let you pursue PG courses through MS, MD, DNB, and PG Diploma programs after MBBS. In this article, we will keep you updated with the latest news on NEET PG 2023 regarding the Exam date, Registration/Application form, Syllabus, Study material, Admit card, Results, Cutoff, and Counselling.

Over 8000 students from states still left ineligible to appear in the exam. This is despite extension of dates to 30th June.

If you were not eligible for taking this exam, you can explore other alternatives in the meantime. One of the most popular competitive exams in the UK is PLAB. Only around 10,000 doctors opt for this!

NEET PG 2023 Latest News

Following are the updates and NEET PG 2023 news:

Storming Twitter for Postponement

From 4 PM onwards on 3rd February 2023, Doctors called for a Twitter storm to maximize the reach by tweeting with a hashtag: NEETPG2023, #PostponeNEETPG2023, #ResignMansukhMandaviya and @faima_india_. You can join the conversation by doing the same.

The Call for Postponing NEET PG 2023 via Pariksha pe Charcha

Doctors and Students in India are making demands for NEET PG postponement for a long already. Recently, they were told such requests will be heard after Pariksha pe Charcha.

For those who don’t know, Pariksha pe Charcha is a yearly event. The Indian Prime Minister engages with students, teachers, and parents from all around the nation at the event and offers helpful advice on how to take board and entrance tests without stress.

Twitter is calling for making as many as tweets between 4 PM to 6 PM on 27th January 2023. Many believe that this will be the last call to reach out to authorities and make their voices heard.

If you haven’t participated, simply go to Twitter and say your words using the hashtags- PostponeNEETPG2023, ParikshapeCharcha and NEETPGpeCharcha.

No Concrete Response

Despite multiple pleas and polls and voting, it appears the exam is not going to be deferred. There are no official announcements or even hints that point there are any actions going to be taken.

The government has made it clear that the exam is not going to be postponed and will be held on 5th March 2023 only.

UDA India Demands Postponing the Exam

UDA India, United Doctors Front, has requested MoHFW to look into the matter of eligibility criteria for NEET PG 2023. In their letter to Dr. Mansukh Mandaviya, Union Health Minister, they urged that the matter be seen as the exam dates are coming.

In their letter, they wrote:

As per NBEMS revised internship eligibility criteria for NEET PG 2023, the Internship completion date i.e. 30/06/2023 is not justifying the criteria for the ongoing internship batch. Around 10,000 interns from many states are still ineligible for NEET PG 2023 after revision.

So, we request you to kindly look into the above matter on an urgent basis and serve justice by Postponement of NEET PG 2023 for a Minimum of 2-3 months and re-revision of internship eligibility criteria to make them eligible for the exam.

Over 8000 Students are Left Ineligible

Despite the extension of the internship criteria, over 8000 students will not be able to sit in the exam. This is despite when the dates were extended to 30th June.

Read the full report here.

NBE Extends the Cutoff Dates for Internship Completion

As of 13/01/2023, the cutoff date for internship completion has been changed to 30th June. The change takes effect henceforth from the prior date which was 31st March 2023.

FORDA INDIA Update on Extension of Cutoff Dates for Internship Completion

FORDA India has just tweeted saying:

Urgent action needed! FORDA calls for postponement of NEET PG ‘23 eligibility deadline to protect the interests of interns across India. Current batch of most interns deemed ineligible-Unprecedented in history! Save their future! @Mohfw_India @DghsIndia @OfficeOf_MM @NMC_IND

Official Release

On 7th January 2023, the official notification came out from NBEMS regarding the application date as well as the exam date:

NBEMS Notification Regarding News Articles on Fake Notifications

Kindly ignore the advertisement published in some newspapers today informing the NEET PG 2023 applications are invited from 5th January 2023 onwards

Fake News Alert

Some news websites have come up stating the exam date has been postponed till July. Please note, this is purely fake and no official announcement has been made yet.

Buster: Fake News with no authority from NBEMS has been published in newspapers

Official Notification on Exam Date

Exam date has just been announced- The NEET PG examination will be held on 5th March 2023

NEET PG 2023 Postponed?

The NBE has made clear that no further demands on postponing the exam will be entertained. The exam will be held on 5th March 2023 certainly. It is advised to refrain from rumors of postponement as no official updates on the information bulletin have been made. To check out any new notices, you can also browse on this NBEMS official link.

The NBE withdrew the 5th March 2023 exam date notification from their information bulletin. However, it was recommended to refrain from this topic as no further clarification was provided.

On 5th January 2023, an unofficial yet authentic news media- the Times of India, published an article in their newspaper. This article was later rejected by NBEMS stating no such official announcements were made and the application form date is yet to be released.

How to Check Official Press Releases?

To check out any new notices, you can also browse on this NBEMS official link. To further support the statement, we will cite the working link of the notice that was initially released. This notice is still online, hence, wait for further updates. Link to Notice Board- Click Here

Twitter Notifications

Twitter is going haywire on the postponement of the exam. Below are some NEET PG 2023 Twitter tweets worth noting:

Exam Date [Announced]

NBE has announced the exam date which is going to be 5th March 2023. Below are all the dates and timelines you should be aware of:

EventsDates (expected)
Availability of Information Bulletin7th January 2023 onward
Online Submission of Application7th January (3 PM onward) to 27th January 2023 (Till 11:55 PM)
Edit Window for All the Candidates30th January to 3rd February
Final Edit Window to rectify Deficient/Incorrect Images:
1. Photograph
2. Signature
3. Thumb Impression
14th February to 17th February
Issue of Admit Card27th February 2023
Examination Date5th March 2023
Declaration of Result31st March 2023
Tentative Dates

Previous Dates

The exam had been conducted in past for the following:

YearExam Date
202221st May 2022
202111th September 2021
20205th January 2020
20196th January 2019
20187th January 2018

Exam Details

NEET-PG 2023 is the single eligibility cum entrance examination for admission to MD/MS/PG Diploma Courses after MBBS for the academic session 2023-24 which includes the following:

  1. All India 50% quota seats for all States/Union territories of India.
  2. State quota seats for all States/Union territories of India.
  3. All Private Medical Colleges, Institutions & Universities/Deemed
    Universities all across the country
  4. Armed Forces Medical Services Institutions.
  5. Post MBBS DNB Courses and Post MBBS NBEMS Diploma Courses

The following Medical Institutions are not covered by centralized admissions for MD/MS seats through NEET PG for the 2023 session:

  1. AIIMS, New Delhi, and other AIIMS
  2. PGIMER, Chandigarh
  3. JIPMER, Puducherry
  4. NIMHANS, Bengaluru
  5. Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum

No State Government/Private Medical college/Universities will be conducting any separate entrance for admission to their MD/MS/PG Diploma Courses for the admission session 2023-24.

How to Apply

The steps to apply for NEET PG 2023 are as follows:

15 minutes 15 minutes

Fill Registration Form

Fill out the user registration form on NBE to generate the User ID/Application ID and Password.

User ID and Password

User ID and Password will be sent through SMS and Email.

Complete Application Form

Complete the application form and upload your Photograph, Scanned signature, Thumb impression & Prescribed documents.

Examination Centre

Choose your Test City


Agree to the declaration and Submit the Application


Pay the Examination Fee through the payment gateway

Application submission processes are completed on successful payment of the examination fee and receipt of an acknowledgment to this effect from NBEMS. Take a printout of the filled Application form with the Transaction ID printed on it for records.

Registration/ Application Form

Visit NBE Portal for Application form.
  • A candidate can submit NEET PG 2023 form only once. Any candidate found to have submitted more than one application form may be debarred from NEET PG, his/her candidature may be canceled and further action as deemed appropriate by NBEMS shall be taken.
  • Candidates should ensure that all the information entered during the online submission of the application form is correct and factual. Information provided by the candidates in the online application form shall be treated as correct and NBEMS will not entertain, under any circumstances, any request for change in the information provided by the candidates.
  • The option of editing certain information entered in the application form shall be available to the candidates during the edit window on Instructions to Fill Application Form for details regarding Edit Window.
  • NBEMS does not edit/modify/alter any information entered by the candidates at the time of online submission of the application form under any circumstances. There is no provision for change in any information after the conduct of the examination and/or declaration of the result. Such requests are entertained.
  • The application can only be submitted online through the NBEMS website https://nbe.edu.in There is no other methodology for application submission. Application submitted through any other mode is summarily rejected.

Application Fee

The fee for application to this entrance exam has been quoted. This is as follows:

General, OBC, and EWSRs. 4250 (including GST)
SC, ST, PwDRs. 3250 (including GST)
*Excluding charges as may be applicable by various payment gateways.

How to Pay?

The prescribed exam fee should be remitted through a payment gateway provided using a Credit Card or a Debit Card issued by banks in India or other modes as may be made available and have been provided on the web page.

Fee can not be deposited through any mode other than the payment gateway available while submitting the online application form submission.

Documents required

Candidates MUST bring to the test center the following documents:

  1. A printed copy of the Barcoded/QR Coded Admit card with his/her recent colored photograph pasted on it
  2. Photocopy of Permanent / Provisional SMC/MCI/NMC registration*, to be retained by the test center

Please bring at least one but as many of the above-mentioned Photo IDs which are issued to you and details of which have been provided in the application form

The below-mentioned Govt issued photo IDs (must be original and valid/ non-expired), details of which have been provided while filling out the application form:

  1. Aadhaar Card (with Photograph)
  2. PAN Card
  3. Driving License
  4. Passport
  5. Voter ID

NEET PG 2023 Eligibility Criteria

The eligibility criteria for admission to MD/MS/PG Diploma Courses are as follows:

Internship Completion Date

Candidates in possession of an MBBS degree or Provisional MBBS Pass Certificate recognized as per the provisions of the NMC Act, 2019 and the repealed Indian Medical Council Act 1956 and possessing a permanent or provisional registration certificate of MBBS qualification issued by the NMC/ the erstwhile Medical Council of India or State Medical Council and have completed one year of internship or are likely to complete the internship on or before 31st March 2023, may apply for NEET-PG 2023 through online application system at website https://nbe.edu.in.

The cutoff date for Internship Completion
30th June 2023

Eligibility Criteria for Foreign Medical Graduates (FMGE):

Indian citizens or overseas citizens of India who have obtained their Primary Medical Qualifications from Medical Colleges outside India should have qualified for the Foreign Medical Graduate Examination (Screening Test) as per Screening Test Regulations, 2002 which is conducted by the National Board of Examinations in Medical Sciences.

Further, they should have been registered with the NMC/ the erstwhile Medical Council of India or State Medical Council and should have completed their internship or are likely to complete their internship on or before 31st March 2023.

Foreign Medical Graduates are required to bring their FMGE Pass certificate issued by NBEMS on their testing day along with the provisional/permanent registration certificate issued by a medical council.

Eligibility Criteria for Foreign Nationals

Foreign nationals don’t need to have temporary registration with the National Medical Commission (NMC) at the time of writing NEET PG. Foreign Nationals can write the exam without registration with NMC.

The NMC may, on payment of the prescribed fee for registration, grant temporary registration for the duration of the Post Graduate course limited to the medical college/institution to which he/she is admitted for the time being exclusively for pursuing postgraduate studies.

Provided further that temporary registration to such foreign national shall be subject to the condition that such person is duly registered with appropriate registering authority in his own country where from he has obtained his Basic Medical qualification and is duly recognized by the corresponding Medical Council or concerned authority.”

Exam Pattern (Scheme)

The exam shall be conducted in a single day & single session as a computer-based examination, the date of which is 5th March 2023.

TypeMCQ Based
Total Questions200
Time3.5 hours

The examination shall be multiple choice questions delivered using a computer network (CBT) as per the scheme prescribed. The exam comprises 200 Multiple Choices, single correct response questions in English language only. The time allotted is 3 hrs 30 min.

There shall be a 25% negative marking for incorrect answers. No marks will be deducted for unattempted questions.

Marking Scheme

Allocation of marks for each MCQ shall be as follows:

1.Correct Response4 Marks
2.Incorrect Response1 Mark shall be deducted
3.Unattempted QuestionZero

During the examination, candidates are given the option to mark any question, whether attempted or not, for review which means that the candidate has been given the option to go through these questions again before the examination time ends. Candidates may note that such questions which are marked for review shall be evaluated as per the marking scheme mentioned above.

Allow Candidates to enter the examination center and Commence Registration for the test07:00 AM
Entry closes at Examination Center08:30 AM
Grant access for Candidate Login08:45 AM
Candidates log in to read instructions08:50 AM
Exam Start Time09:00 AM
Exam End Time12:30 PM

Overview of Computer-Based Test

  1. Online Application Form Submission
  2. Demo Test (At NBEMS Website)
  3. Issuance of Admit Cards
  4. Reporting at Test Centre on Schedule Date &Time
  5. Security Check-in Process
  6. Registration for Test + Face ID & Biometric
  7. Examination Begins
  8. Examination Ends


The syllabus for the NEET PG exam shall comprise of subject/knowledge area as per Graduate Medical Education Regulations issued by the erstwhile Medical Council of India with prior approval of the Govt of India. You can check the individual year syllabus below:

Preparation Tips

This entrance exam requires sheer will and complete dedication.

  1. Make a timetable
  2. Revise at least thrice
  3. Do not ignore questions banks and mocks
  4. Do 10 Year NEET PG exam papers
  5. Relax and focus on your dream

Study Material

Many of the students pursue DAMS (DAMS Notes PDF available here), Marrow, and Prepladder for this entrance exam. Additionally, you can grab some of the finest books from our Downloads section below:

Admit Card

Admit cards will be made live on the NBEMS website https://nbe.edu.in around 27th February 2023. Admit cards will not be issued to candidates found ineligible before the conduct of the examination.

Candidates are required to download their admit card from the NBEMS website and affix firmly their latest passport-size photograph in the space provided on the admit card. The photograph must meet the following specifications:

  • Size of photograph: Minimum 35×45 mm (and not larger than the box printed on admit card for pasting the photograph) with at least 75% area on the photograph should be occupied with the face & head of the candidate.
  • It should be a Colour photograph with white background
  • The photograph needs to display a full front view of the face with a neutral expression. No Caps, Stethoscopes, Goggles, or Ornaments are to be worn.
  • The photograph should not have reflection or shadow on the face with red eyes.
  • The photograph needs to be printed on high-quality paper with at least 600 dpi Resolution.
  • The photograph must not have kinks, scratches, and stains.


The results of the NEET PG 2023 exam will be released on 31st March 2023. The result shall be available at the NBEMS website: https://natboard.edu.in and https://nbe.edu.in. Candidates can download their score card from the NBEMS website using their login credentials.

There shall be NO re-evaluation or rechecking or re-totaling of responses marked by the candidates. Requests/Queries for re-evaluation/re-totaling shall not be entertained.

Tie Breaker Criteria

In the event of two or more candidates obtaining the same score, the merit position shall be determined using the following tiebreaker criteria in descending order:

  1. Candidates having a greater number of correct responses in the question paper will be placed in a better merit position.
  2. Candidates having a lesser number of negative responses in the question paper will be placed in a better merit position.
  3. Older candidates will be placed in better merit positions.
  4. Candidates securing higher aggregate marks (in percentage) in all MBBS Professional Examinations will be placed in a better merit position.


The eligibility criteria for participation in counseling towards allotment of PG seats conducted by designated counseling authority shall be by the Post Graduate Medical Education Regulations (as per latest amendment) notified by the NMC/ the erstwhile MCI with prior approval of MoHFW, Govt. of India.

CategoryEligibility Criteria
General/EWS50th Percentile
(Including PWD of SC/ST/OBC)
40th Percentile
UR PWD45th Percentile


A separate handbook informing details of the process and applicable reservations are released by the designated counseling authority.

The designated Counseling Authority for NEET-PG counseling is the Medical Counseling Committee (MCC) of DGHS, Govt of India. Which will conduct counseling for MD/MS/Diploma and PG DNB courses. The candidate helpline No (For Counseling related queries only) shall be as under:

Phone No.: 0120-4073500
Toll-Free No.: 1800 102 7637

Please contact the above numbers for queries related to Counseling only. Examination-related queries shall not be entertained at this number. Please note that all queries will be answered during the Call Centre timings only i.e. 09:00 AM to 08:30 PM and during the period of counseling only.


Will the exam be postponed?

No, the exam is not going to be postponed. It will be held on 5th March 2023 indefinitely. Please avoid rumors on this issue.

The official notice board can be found here- Link to Notice Board- Click Here
NEET PG 2023 Exam Date Latest News

What is NEET PG?

NEET PG is an entrance exam for courses like MS, MD, DNB, and other Diplomas.

How to prepare for NEET PG?

Students opt for DAMS, Prepladder, or Marrow. DAMS and Bhatia are the two renowned live class-based courses while Marrow and Prepladder are online courses.

Is the exam tough?

It is easy to pass the exam with preparation, but there is no value because the colleges are allotted based on rank. Even if passed, many fail to acquire desired ranks and hence, colleges.

Has NEET PG 2023 been postponed?

The exam is going to be held on 5th March 2023 only. The cutoff dates for the internship were extended to 30th June after multiple pleas. The postponement will not happen as made clear by the government. A similar scenario happened last year where no such appeals were entertained by NMC.

Who will conduct the exam?

NEET PG 2023, also known as the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test for Postgraduate exam is conducted by NBE (The National Board of Examination). The exam grants admission seats to over 27,233 Doctor of Medicine (MD), 14,723 Master of Surgery (MS), and 976 PG Diploma in nearly 6102 government and private colleges.

Will the exam be held online or offline mode?

The exam will be computer-based. It will comprise 200 MCQ-based questions which should be completed in 3.5 hours. There will 25% negative marking for every incorrect answer.

What is the attempt limit for the exam?

There is no attempt limit set for the exam by NBE so far. A candidate may take the exam as many times as he wishes.