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How to Draw Brachial Plexus in Less Than 10 Seconds


The Brachial plexus is formed by the ventral primary rami of the lower four cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerves (C5–T1). It has roots & trunks (in the neck), divisions (passing behind clavicle), cords and branches (in the axilla). It is covered by a prolongation of prevertebral fascia (axillary sheath) around the nerves in the axilla.

Following Video will help you draw the Brachial Plexus in less than 10 seconds and learn it faster than any others! Just practice it, since it is always and always asked in First Year MBBS Anatomy exams.

Also check out our K Sembulingam PDF Book here!

Two branches are given directly from the roots in the neck:

  1. Dorsal scapular nerve (C5), which supplies rhomboid major & monor levator scapulae muscles.
  2. Long thoracic nerve of Bell (C5–C7), which is given in the neck, enters axilla and descends on the external surface of the serratus anterior muscle and supplies it.

Lateral cord gives three branches (LML), medial and posterior cords give 5 branches each. Radial nerve is a branch of posterior cord (STARS) and supplies posterior (extensor) compartment of upper limb. Ulnar nerve is a branch of medial cord (UM4) and runs on the ulnar (medial) side of the limb. Median nerve runs in the midline of the limb and has contributions from both medial and lateral cords.

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Manipal Manual Of Surgery 4th Edition PDF Free Download


Surgery is a subject in Fourth year of MBBS that deals with Surgical procedures and related medical science & Manipal Manual of Surgery, written by K. Rajgopal Shenoy, is widely used and recommended, best book used to study Surgery by Medical students. In this post, we are going to provide Manipal Manual of Surgery Latest Edition PDF Free Download through Google Drive Links.

Do check out our other Surgery Books:

Manipal Manual of Surgery PDF Book

The Manipal Manual of Surgery book has 4 basic units with an additional Viva Voce unit at the very end. These 5 units cover 53 chapters in total over 675 pages. The five units are:

Unit I: General Surgery: 21 Chapters

UNIT II: Gastrointestinal Surgery: 16 Chapters

Unit I: Urology: 6 Chapters

UNIT II: Specialties: 6 Chapters

Unit I: Viva Voce Examination in Surgery: 4 Chapters

About Author

K Rajgopal Shenoy


Manipal Manual of Surgery is recommended book by most universities for Undergraduate students, and MBBS Students widely use this book to study Surgery during their final semesters in Fourth Year. It is the best textbook in competition with SRB, while for clinical, S Das remains perfect. Book starts with Student’s opinion, then following Foreword, Contributors and Preface. Indeed Manipal Surgery has perfect standards, especially if you are preparing for NEET or PG Exams after MBBS. The book has over 675 pages with 53 chapters in total under 5 units.

The book also features a separate section called- “Viva Voce Examination in Surgery” which is super helpful to students to have an idea about viva during practical exams after theory ones. The X-rays, Instruments, Specimens are very useful to get an idea of what is coming. Operative surgery is simultaneously helpful.

Suggestions to those who are looking forward to establishing a clinical understanding in Surgery are as follows:

  1. Read up everything, even if you are not in a mood to mug up. It will clear out some concepts and some things are bound to stay in your long term memory.
  2. Try to co-relate the anatomical features as you see them with the diagrams in the book. It’s easy to get confused with the beautiful diagrams and the real time anatomy of a patient.
  3. Make up a habit of co-relating everything and you will find the book is almost everything you already know.
  4. Attend every OT (Operating theater) calls that you can get in. Watch out for surgeries that happen and study them in detail. Continue an interaction with the patient after surgery to learn more about post-op care.
  5. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you understand clinical medicine. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Manipal Surgery PDF Book Download

You can download the Manipal Surgery Book by Google Drive Links given below. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page.

These are links to 2nd edition of the book, if you need 3rd or 4th edition, please follow our Facebook page to stay updated, we will be regularly updating them if we find latest editions which include 3th and 4th edition of Manipal Manual of Surgery. If you need other books, do check out our Download Section.

2nd Edition


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[Video] Arterial Blood Gas Sampling: Collection for Analysis


An Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. Small amount of blood is drawn from arteries, which can be, Radial artery, Femoral artery, Brachial artery or another suitable one. An ABG test measures the blood-gas tension values of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, and the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and the blood’s pH. In addition, the arterial oxygen saturation can be determined.

Such information is vital when caring for patients with critical illnesses or respiratory disease. Therefore, the ABG test is one of the most common tests performed on patients in intensive-care units.

Watch the video below to see how a Phelebotomist or a Doctor performs Arterial Blood Gas Analysis on a patient:

Lippincott Illustrated Reviews Biochemistry PDF Download


Biochemistry is a subject in First Year of MBBS that deals with scientific basis of life processes at the molecular level and Lippincott Illustrated Reviews is one of the books used to study it by Medical students. In this post, we are going to provide Lippincott Biochemistry Latest Edition PDF Free Download through Google Drive Links.

Do check out our other Biochemistry Books:

Also check out our K Sembulingam PDF Book here!

Lippincott Illustrated Reviews Biochemistry PDF Book

The Lippincott Illustrated Reviews of Biochemistry book has six units which covers 33 chapters in total:

Unit I: Protein Structure and Function

Chapter 1: Amino Acids

Chapter 2: Structure of Protein

Chapter 3: Globular Proteins

Chapter 4: Fibrous Proteins

Chapter 5: Enzymes

UNIT II: Bioenergetics and Carbohydrate Metabolism

Chapter 6: Bioenergetics and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Chapter 7: Introduction to Carbohydrates

Chapter 8: Introduction to Metabolism and Glycolysis

Chapter 9: Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex

Chapter 10: Gluconeogenesis

Chapter 11: Glycogen Metabolism

Chapter 12: Metabolism of Monosaccharides and Disaccharides

Chapter 13: Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate

Chapter 14: Glycosaminoglycan, Proteoglycans, and Glycoproteins

UNIT III: Lipid Metabolism

Chapter 15: Dietary Lipids Metabolism

Chapter 16: Fatty Acid, Ketone Body, and Triacylglycerol Metabolism

Chapter 17: Phospholipid, Glycosphingolipid, and Eicosanoid Metabolism

Chapter 18: Cholesterol, Lipoprotein, and Steroid Metabolism

UNIT IV: Nitrogen Metabolism

Chapter 19: Amino Acids: Disposal of Nitrogen

Chapter 20: Amino Acid Degradation and Synthesis

Chapter 21: Conversion of Amino Acids to Specialized Products

Chapter 22: Nucleotide Metabolism

UNIT V: Integration of Metabolism

Chapter 23: Metabolic Effects of Insulin and Glucagon

Chapter 24: The Feed–Fast Cycle

Chapter 25: Diabetes Mellitus

Chapter 26: Obesity

Chapter 27: Nutrition

Chapter 28: Vitamins

UNIT VI: Storage and Expression of Genetic Information

Chapter 29: DNA Structure, Replication, and Repair

Chapter 30: RNA Structure, Synthesis, and Processing

Chapter 31: Protein Synthesis

Chapter 32: Regulation of Gene Expression

Chapter 33: Biotechnology and Human Disease

About Author

Denise R. Ferrier

Series Editor

Richard A. Harvey


Lippincott Illustrated Reviews of Biochemistry is another most used textbook for Biochemistry after U Satyanarayana and Harper’s Illustrated Textbook. But the book has super detailed explanation, and perfect standards, especially if you are preparing for NEET or PG Exams after MBBS. The book has over 475 pages with 33 chapters in total under 6 units.

The book has a great disadvantage, it lacks any index, appendix or any other comprehensive guide. The diagrams are pretty neat and tables are easy to compensate with this though.

Suggestions to those studying Biochemistry in First Year MBBS are as follows:

  1. This subject is kind of mug-up everything, except some important topics that are important clinically. Such topics are must, and examples include Glucose Tolerance Test. Those preparing for Post Graduation will have to read everything though.
  2. 5-year question papers for your university are enough, you can try to do 10 years if you want.
  3. Focus on other subjects rather than all concentration on Biochemistry. Physiology and Anatomy are going to help you more than learning biochemistry.
  4. Check out our guide on Blood Test Interpretation- Normal Values and Red Range and Common Emergency Drugs used in Casualty Wards.

Lippincott Biochemistry PDF eBook Download

You can download the Lippincott Biochemistry Book by Google Drive Links given below. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page. These are links to 6th and 5th edition, we will regularly update them if we find latest editions which include 7th and 8th edition of Lippincott Biochemistry. If you need other books, do check out our First Year Books Download Section.

6th Edition

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Please note these are external links and we do not host any downloads on our website. If you are the owner of the content or have disputes regarding the terms, please read our complete Disclaimer page or leave us a message via our Contact Us page. Any violation or infringement will be immediately removed upon confirmation.

Diabetes Mellitus: Types, Complications, Newer Drugs


The Diabetes Mellitus is one of the hot topics in medical career, as it is widely seen among patients. But there are not just 2 types of diabetes,as you were taught in MBBS, there are 11! Below are our notes to Diabetes Mellitus to those preparing for NEET PG Exams after MBBS. Please do correct us if any, using the comments section below.


Diabetes Mellitus can be defined by the four criteria on basis of blood tests, which are given below:

  1. Fasting Blood Glucose (8 hrs) – 126 mg%
  2. Postprandial Blood Glucose – >200 mg% (after 2 hrs. of oral GTT: 75mg)
  3. Random Blood Glucose with symptoms – 200 mg%

Triad: Polyuria, Polydipsia and Weight Loss

  1. HbA1C > 6.5%

Best – American Diabetes Association (Average estimated glucose)

EAG – Estimated Average Glucose

Estimated Average Glucose: Conversion of % HbA1C into mg% of blood glucose is as follows:

  • 6.5 % – 126 mg%
  • 9.5 % – 226 mg%

Blood > Urine > PCT > Re-absorbs 1,5 Anhydroglucitol by Mannose-Fructose-1 receptor

1,5 Anhydroglucitol

It’s a serum used to find out hyperglycemia (at least 1 episode) in past 24 hrs.

 t1/2 = 24 hrs

Normally, glucose in urine is reabsorbed by PCT via SGLT2 while 1,5-Anhydroglucitol is reabsorbed from Fructose–Mannose-1 Receptor.

SGLT-2 is inversely proportional to FM-1

Therefore, in hyperglycemia, Increase of Glucose in urine leads to increase in activity of SGLT-2. This leads to Urinary loss of 1, 5-Anhydroglucitol which results in increased activity of FM-1. Finally, it results in decreased Serum level of 1, 5-Anhydroglucitol.

Therefore, low serum level 1, 5- Anhydroglucitol is a surrogate marker of increased BG at least once in past 24 hrs.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

There are 11 types of Diabetes Mellitus which are as follows:

  1. Type I DM
  2. Type II DM
  3. Type III DM
  4. Type IV DM
  5. Potential DM
  6. Protein Energy DM
  7. Acute Fulminant DM
  8. Tropical DM
  9. Double Diabetes
  10. MODY Diabetes
  11. LADA Diabetes

Difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Chart

The difference between Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is give below:

Type I DM Type II DM
1.   Pathogenesis Antibody – Destruction of β cells pancreas. Insulin receptor resistance.
2.   Chromosome Chromosome 6 Chromosome 2
3.   Family History 5-15% 50-70%
4.   HLA Association ++++

Increase in HLA-DR3

Decrease HLA-DR2 (Protective)

5.   Weight Loss Gain
6.   Age of Onset Younger

<30 Years


>30 Years

7.   Serum Insulin Low (Insulinopenia) Increases (Causes destruction of β cells
8.   Complications Diabetic Ketoacidosis Hyperosmolar Non-Ketotic Coma

Antibody in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Usually questions asked:

  1. M/C – Antibody to inlet cells of pancreas.
  2. Anti- Insulin Antibody
  3. Anti – GAD (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase) Antibody

Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Initial 1-3 Years after this, when insulin requirement is lesser than usual. (Honeymoon period of Type I Diabetes Mellitus).

Type III Diabetes Mellitus

Causes of Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus are given in the chart below:

Drug Induced Endocrine Defect Alzheimer’s Dementia
  1. Steroids
  2. Thiazides
  3. Clozapine
  4. Protein Inhibitors
  5. Phenytoin
  6. β-agonist
  1. Cushioning
  2. Hyperthyroidism
  3. Pheochromocytoma
  4. Acromegaly
  1. Brain Diabetes
  2. Insulin secretion to maintain its neuron (paracrine) > Decreased after 60 years > May lead to Memory Loss

Type IV Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational DM

Potential Diabetes Mellitus

If Single (15%) or both (40%) parents are diabetic, there’s increased chance in offspring, even though offspring may have normal Blood Glucose.

Acute Fulminant Diabetes Mellitus

  • Viral Infection – HIV / EBV (Mass destruction of β cells leading to Hyperglycemia)
  • Common in Pregnancy
  • Reversible – in about 80% cases

Protein Energy Diabetes Mellitus

  • Because of Insulin Deficiency (PEM), there is hyperglycemia
  • No need of Anti-Diabetic Drugs, but just nutritional support

LADA Diabetes Mellitus (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults)

  • Similar to Type I DM in Adults
  • Antibodies are more but less severe autoimmune DM as compared to DM 1
  • Decreased mass of β cell of pancreas


Oral Hypoglycemic drugs:

  • Insulin for 2-3 Years
  • Type 2 (hence one and a half Diabetes)

MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young)

  • Pathophysiology – Insulin secretion defect.
  • Similar to Type II in young.


  1. Thin built
  2. HTN/CAD Risk low
  3. Mild Hyperglycemia
  4. Autosomal Dominant


There are 26 types of MODY, most common types are given below:

Type Gene Defect Chromosome
MODY-3 HNF1 Alpha Chromosome 12
MODY-1 HNF4 Alpha Chromosome 20
MODY-2 Glucokinase Chromosome 7


  1. Autosomal dominant
  2. Mild Hyperglycemia
  3. Age of onset – 20 to 30 Years.
  4. More risk of developing HTN/CAD but less as compared to type II DM.
  5. BMI – <25
  6. Auto antibodies – absent ( + only in case of LADA & Type I DM)


  • MODY-3: Insulin
  • MODY-1, MODY-2 & rest: OHA followed by insulin


Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease caused involving Chromosome 16 and Chromosome 4.

RCAD – Renal Cyst and Diabetes, meaning ADPKD + MODY-5.

Acute Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

  1. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (Type 1) – Hyperglycemia

Precipitating factors include Non-compliance to treatment and Infection

  1. Hyperosmolar Non-Ketotic Coma (Type II)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Life threatening complication of Type I DM leading to excessive Ketone body formation.

Precipitating Factors

  1. Non compliance to Treatment.
  2. Infection
  3. MI
  4. Stroke

Clinical Features

  1. Fever – if infection is precipitating cause
  2. Acute epigastic pain repeated (Nausea/Vomiting)
  3. Dehydration
  4. Feeble Pulse, Hypotension
  5. Altered sensorium in severe cases because of hyposmolality of blood
  6. Similar to Pancreatitis

Lab Investigations

  1. Blood Sugar is Greater than 400 mg%
  2. Serum Osmolality is 320-350 mOsmol/l
  3. Urinary Ketones – More
  4. Arterial Blood Gas – Metabolic Acidosis (In Kidney) due to Ketonuria leads to less HCO3 absorption in PCT and High anion gap.
Metabolic Acidosis
High Anion Gap Normo (Chloromic 10±2)
DKA Renal Tubular Acidosis
Lactic Acidosis Cholera
Alcoholic Acidosis Ureterosigmoidostomy


  1. Na+ – Decrease in Pseudohyponatremia
  2. K+ Hyperkalemia (Potassium move from Extra-cellular fluid to Intra-cellular fluid due to decreased insulin)

Pseudohyponatremia in:

  1. Paraprotein Increases
  2. Cholesterol Increases
  3. Glucose Increases

Leading to:

  1. Multiple Myeloma
  2. Dyslipidemia
  3. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
  • Na comes lane from Autoanalyser due to defect.
  • Every 100 mg% increase in Glucose results in Decrease in 1.6mg/L in Na.


Na+ is Increased (Normal in tests after Autoanalyser) > Excessive dehydration in diabetic Ketoacidosis

K+ is Decreased > Hyperkalemia (K+ in loss of GIT Contents) and severe dehydration

Difference between Diabetic Ketoacidosis and HyperOsmolar Non-Ketotic Hyperglycemic Coma (DKA vs HONK or HHS)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Hyper-Osmolar Non-Ketotic Coma
1. Occurs in Type I Type II
2. S. osmolality 320-350 mosm >350 mosm
3. Blood Sugar >400 mg% >800 mg%
4. Expected fluid loss 4-6 L 8-10 L
5. Prognosis Less dangerous More dangerous



  1. IV Fluids

Normal Saline (15-20ml/Kg/Hour for first 2-3 hrs followed by 200ml/hour till BG < 250 mg%)

  1. Insulin Infusion

I/V or Regular (plain)

0.15 IV/kg bolus dose followed by 0.1 IV/kg/hr flood glucose monitoring

Insulin Types: Regular, Ultra-short, Intermediate and Long Acting

  1. Potassium Replacement

10-20 mEq/hr K+ monitoring.

Treatment will eventually lead to hypokalemia from Hyperkalemia.

  1. Bicarbonate Replacement – No

Prognosis: 15-20% die even after best treatment


  1. Cerebral Edema (M/C of death in DKA)
  2. Arterial & Venous Thrombosis
  3. ARDS


Substance released from stomach in response to oral glucose which potentiate or enhance the blood sugar lowering effect of stomach.

  • GIP – Gastric inhibitory peptide
  • GLP Agonist – Glucagon – A peptide

GLP Agonist-1

Eg. – Exanitide, Liraglutide

Side Effects
  1. Most common – Nausea/Vomiting
  2. Weight Loss – severe
  3. Bladder Cancer (Most dangerous)


Endogenous GLP-1 is converted to by-products through DPP 4. These Gliptan drugs prevent degradation of GLP-1 by inhibiting DPP 4, hence more availability of GLP-1 and decrease in blood sugar.

Examples: Sitagliptin, Saxagliptin, Vildagliptin, Linagliptin, Alogliptin

New Medications of Diabetes Mellitus

Given below are the newer drugs for DM:

  1. Gliptins
  2. Resveratrol – Anti-oxidant – decreases 20X doses antioxidant properly
  3. Colesevelam – bile and sequestrant
  4. Pramlintide (in both type 1 & 2) – Amylin analog – decreases glucagon levels in body causing hypoglycemia
  5. Fasiglifama free fatty acid Receptor Agonist. It’ll increase insulin secretion. FFAR-1 acts on beta cells.

Double Diabetes – Type I DM

Insulin requirement is increased in Insulin resistance (Type II DM). In patients of Type I DM, upon 5-8 years of onset, there is development of insulin resistance, i.e, feature of Type II DM, hence labelled as Double Diabetes.

Guyton and Hall Physiology 14th Edition PDF Google Drive [Download]


Physiology is definitely the base subject in First Year of MBBS. Comparable to Anatomy and Biochemistry, this subject is much easier to understand. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Physiology is used widely to study this subject. Although AK Jain and Sembulingam are still renowned, Guyton and Hall latest edition still holds it’s value. You can download Guyton and Hall Physiology 14th edition in PDF format using the Google Drive Links given below.

Guyton and Hall Physiology PDF Book

There are 15 units in latest edition book (unlike AK Jain with two parts) and these are as follows:

  1. Introduction to Physiology: The Cell and General Physiology
  2. Membrane Physiology, Nerve, and Muscle
  3. The Heart
  4. The Circulation
  5. The Body Fluids and Kidneys
  6. Blood Cells, Immunity, and Blood Clotting
  7. Respiration
  8. Aviation, Space, and Deep-Sea Diving Physiology
  9. The Nervous System: A. General Principles and Sensory Physiology
  10. The Nervous System: B. The Special Senses
  11. The Nervous System: C. Motor and Integrative Neurophysiology
  12. Gastrointestinal Physiology
  13. Metabolism and Temperature Regulation
  14. Endocrinology and Reproduction
  15. Sports Physiology

If you need First Year Syllabus, you can check MBBS Syllabus here.

You can download other physiology books:

About the Author:

  • Arthur C. Guyton, M.D.†
  • John E. Hall, Ph.D.


As mentioned earlier, most medical students use AK Jain, however, Guyton and Hall 14th edition PDF is a deeply detailed book that is often used for NEET and other PG preparation after MBBS. There are 1152 pages in the book divided in 15 sections and 84 chapters in total. There is just one index at the end of the book. Indeed it’s so vast, that headache is common. But physiology is the base subject, and you simply cannot miss important topics.

Suggestions to those studying physiology in First Year MBBS are as follows:

  1. Try reading from this book from start or if you have ample of time. Otherwise, AK Jain is the life-saver to pass the semester exams.
  2. There are plenty of YouTube videos around and then there are some animations, which help understand the most important topics. Just don’t skip them, you will need them in your entire medical career.
  3. If you are preparing for PG Exams, do read this book. It will pave the way of better learning.
  4. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you in medicine. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Guyton and Hall Physiology PDF Book Download

You can download the Guyton and Hall Physiology 11th edition by link given below. Please note that if you need latest edition or 13th or 14th edition, you will have to mail us. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page.


Read Online


Please note these are external links and we do not host any downloads on our website. If you are the owner of the content or have disputes regarding the terms, please read our complete Disclaimer page or leave us a message via our Contact Us page. Any violation or infringement will be immediately removed upon confirmation.

Child Dies On Bed Of Rabies As People Watch


The video is currently viral on Facebook showing how a 16-year old boy named Challa Babu from Andhra Pradesh got bit by a street dog and suffered rabies. The video is equally brutal as it shows the child suffering, crying out in pain and symptoms of hydrophobia in a Hospital of Khammam under the presence of a state minister. The boy died 3 hours later because the hospitals couldn’t provide him the anti-rabies vaccine.

Before you read, we want to inform you that the video that was posted here, is 7 years old, 2011, when government was of PM Manmohan Singh. This has nothing to do with BJP, the current government of India. If anyone shares this video with you, please point to them the video is genuine, the date is not.

Brown Eggs vs White Eggs: Which Is Healthier?


This is perhaps the biggest myth of all times, when it comes to choosing Brown Eggs vs White Eggs, many of us say Brown eggs are more nutritious and contain more protein than white ones. But are they? Do brown eggs contain more protein than white ones? We have always lived with this, let’s find out what’s the difference between Brown Eggs and White Eggs.

Brown Eggs vs White Eggs: Myth or Fact?

Let’s start by putting the color of shells, finding out why exactly they have colors and then moving to which one is healthier or more natural in Brown Eggs vs White Eggs.

Color of Shells

The color of eggs is not because they are painted with something, that is because of one simple reason: White Chickens lay White Eggs while Brown Chicken lay Brown Eggs (1, 2). The breed of the chicken determines the color of the eggs. Plymouth Rocks and Rhode Island Reds lay brown-shelled eggs. These hens produce eggs with protoporphyrin IX, a pigment made from heme that provide it brown color.

Brown Eggs vs White Eggs Color
Color of Eggs

Summary: The Brown Hens give Brown Eggs while White Hens give White Eggs.

Nutritional Value: Which one is Healthier?

If you ask people who take brown eggs why they prefer them, they will say they are more healthier and contain more protein. If asked why, their answers are blunt.

The real answer is: They both have Same Nutritional Value in terms of Protein, Vitamins and Calories (3, 4, 5). To summarize, they have 3.5gm of Protein and around 80 Calories.

Does color of shell changes nutritional value of the egg? Again, a Big No!(6)

The amount of nutritional value may vary with Chicken quality, how well fed it is, how young and healthy chicken is. For example, a chicken which roams in sunlight for 3-4 times a day will gives containing more amount of Vitamin D. Likewise, a chicken fed with Omega-3 fatty acids will give eggs with more value of omega-3 fatty acids.

Check out Nutritional value of Brown Eggs vs White Eggs below:

Nutrient White Yolk % Total in White
Protein 3.6 g 2.7g 57%
Fat 0.05g 4.5g 1%
Calcium 2.3 mg 21.9 mg 9.5%
Magnesium 3.6 mg 0.85 mg 80.8%
Iron 0.03 mg 0.4 mg 6.2%
Phosphorus 5 mg 66.3 mg 7%
Potassium 53.8 mg 18.5 mg 74.4%
Sodium 54.8 mg 8.2 mg 87%
Zinc 0.01 mg 0.4 mg 0.2%
Copper 0.008 mg 0.013 mg 38%
Manganese 0.004 mg 0.009 mg 30.8%
Selenium 6.6 mcg 9.5 mcg 41%
Thiamin 0.01 mg 0.03 mg 3.2%
Riboflavin 0.145 mg 0.09 mg 61.7%
Niacin 0.035 mg 0.004 mg 89.7%
Pantothenic acid. 0.63 mg 0.51 mg 11%
B6 0.002 mg 0.059 mg 3.3%
Folate 1.3 mcg 24.8 mcg 5%
B12 0.03 mcg 0.331 mcg 8.3%
Vitamin A 0 IU 245 IU 0%
Vitamin E 0 mg 0.684 mg 0%
Vitamin D 0 IU 18.3 IU 0%
Vitamin K 0 IU 0.119 IU 0%
DHA and AA 0 94 mg 0%
Carotenoids 0 mcg 21 mcg 0%


Summary: Regardless of the color, White vs Brown Eggs, both contain same nutritional value.

Then why are Brown Eggs costlier than White Eggs?

Again, they may say it’s because of the taste. Definitely incorrect, they have the similar taste (7). Apart from the nutritional value, they possess same taste. The taste only varies depending on condition of hen that lay the egg.

In earlier times, Brown eggs were usually larger than white ones, so their price was increased to make up for extra benefit (8). Today, they both are almost same the size.

Summary: The taste of Brown vs White Eggs is same, regardless of the price difference.


So, next time someone tells you Brown Eggs are better than White Eggs and contain more nutritional value, slap them on face. Don’t be a fool, believe in facts rather than statements.

Man Gets Sucked Into MRI Machine: Horror and Death


Mumbai: The dreadful news of MRI accident came from Nair Hospital, Mumbai where a man carrying oxygen cylinder was sucked into Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine. The 32-year old Mr. Rajesh Maru, suffered a horrible death as metal oxygen cylinder got sucked into magnetic force of MRI and burst to release oxygen.

Rajesh has went to accompany his elder relative who was being treated at the same hospital. A ward boy had instructed him to carry the oxygen cylinder with him to MRI machine, upon being asked if it was safe, they were told it was absolutely safe and common practice.

Rajesh Maru was carrying Oxygen Cylinder in MRI room
Rajesh Maru was carrying Oxygen Cylinder in MRI room

As the negligence poured in, the burst of oxygen cylinder upon being sucked by MRI machine, led to leakage of vast amount oxygen. Upon inhalation of excessive oxygen by Rajesh, he died within minutes of the MRI accident.

Harish Solanki, brother-in-law of Rajesh stated:

He went there to visit my ailing mother. A ward boy told him to carry an oxygen cylinder with him to MRI room which is prohibited. It all happened because of the carelessness of hospital’s doctors and administration. No security guard was either present to tell him that he should not carry oxygen cylinder with him to MRI room.

He added:

As he entered the room, the MRI machine sucked him in due to magnetic force as he had oxygen cylinder with him.  He died within two minutes. No hospital authority has approached us accepting their mistake.

An FIR was later registered against the Doctor on duty, Siddhant Shah, and the ward boy involved, Vitthal Chavan along with another female ward lady involved, Sunita Surve. They were charged IPC Section 304A of Death by Negligence. Maharashtra CM Devendra Fadnavis had announced Rs.5 Lac for victim’s family.

[Video] Real Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Surgery


This Video explains Why and How of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Surgery done most commonly for Stones in Gall Bladder, also known as Cholelithiasis. Nowadays, nearly every fourth person is having gall bladder stones, and they are often getting their gall bladder removed. It therefore becomes a necessity to atleast know the basics for this surgery as a doctor, or even as a medical student.


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Download Dr Vivek Jain PSM Book for Community Medicine directly through Google drive links. Get the latest edition here for your third year mbbs or NEET PG exam.
Plab 1 study material free and paid

Plab 1 Study Material: Free and Paid

Free and Paid- View the most wanted study material for Plab 1 exam for Doctors in UK after MBBS. Plab1keys and Plabable are the best to stick to, however, you can try Reference books such as Oxford too!
Delhi Fights Covid Third Wave

Delhi Fights Covid 19 Amidst The Third Wave

The Third Wave of Covid 19 has hit Delhi hard, and we seek Delhites to reach our government in reaching poor people with little more information.
Rajeev Gandhi Super Specialty Hospital Covid

The Unsung Warriors Of Rajeev Gandhi Hospital

Doctors at RGSSH, Delhi continue their battle against COVID-19, creating an example against the Era of Pandemic.
NMC Bill 2019 In Rajya Sabha End Of Medical Era

NMC Bill In Rajya Sabha 2019: Ready To Pass

The National Medical Commission or NMC Bill 2019 has been passed to Rajya Sabha after passing from Lok Sabha on 29th July. The government is still trying to suppress the voices of IMA representing the anger of doctors nationwide.