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Guyton and Hall Physiology 13th Edition PDF Download Google Drive


Physiology is definitely the base subject in First Year of MBBS. Comparable to Anatomy and Biochemistry, this subject is much easier to understand. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Physiology is used widely to study this subject. Although AK Jain and Sembulingam are still renowned, Guyton still holds it’s value. You can download Guyton and Hall Physiology 13th and 14th edition in PDF format using the Google Drive Links given below.

Guyton and Hall Physiology PDF Book

There are 15 units in one single book (unlike AK Jain with two parts) and these are as follows:

  1. Introduction to Physiology: The Cell and General Physiology
  2. Membrane Physiology, Nerve, and Muscle
  3. The Heart
  4. The Circulation
  5. The Body Fluids and Kidneys
  6. Blood Cells, Immunity, and Blood Clotting
  7. Respiration
  8. Aviation, Space, and Deep-Sea Diving Physiology
  9. The Nervous System: A. General Principles and Sensory Physiology
  10. The Nervous System: B. The Special Senses
  11. The Nervous System: C. Motor and Integrative Neurophysiology
  12. Gastrointestinal Physiology
  13. Metabolism and Temperature Regulation
  14. Endocrinology and Reproduction
  15. Sports Physiology

If you need First Year Syllabus, you can check MBBS Syllabus here.

You can download other physiology books:

About the Author:

  • Arthur C. Guyton, M.D.†
  • John E. Hall, Ph.D.


As mentioned earlier, most medical students use AK Jain, however, Guyton and Hall is a deeply detailed book that is often used for NEET and other PG preparation after MBBS. There are 1152 pages in the book divided in 15 sections and 84 chapters in total. There is just one index at the end of the book. Indeed it’s so vast, that headache is common. But physiology is the base subject, and you simply cannot miss important topics.

Suggestions to those studying physiology in First Year MBBS are as follows:

  1. Try reading from this book from start or if you have ample of time. Otherwise, AK Jain is the life-saver to pass the semester exams.
  2. There are plenty of YouTube videos around and then there are some animations, which help understand the most important topics. Just don’t skip them, you will need them in your entire medical career.
  3. If you are preparing for PG Exams, do read this book. It will pave the way of better learning.
  4. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you in medicine. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Guyton and Hall Physiology PDF Book Download

You can download the Guyton and Hall Physiology 11th edition by link given below. Please note that if you need 13th or 14th edition, you will have to mail us. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page.


Read Online


Please note these are external links and we do not host any downloads on our website. If you are the owner of the content or have disputes regarding the terms, please read our complete Disclaimer page or leave us a message via our Contact Us page. Any violation or infringement will be immediately removed upon confirmation.

Child Dies On Bed Of Rabies As People Watch


The video is currently viral on Facebook showing how a 16-year old boy named Challa Babu from Andhra Pradesh got bit by a street dog and suffered rabies. The video is equally brutal as it shows the child suffering, crying out in pain and symptoms of hydrophobia in a Hospital of Khammam under the presence of a state minister. The boy died 3 hours later because the hospitals couldn’t provide him the anti-rabies vaccine.

Before you read, we want to inform you that the video that was posted here, is 7 years old, 2011, when government was of PM Manmohan Singh. This has nothing to do with BJP, the current government of India. If anyone shares this video with you, please point to them the video is genuine, the date is not.

Brown Eggs vs White Eggs: Which Is Healthier?


This is perhaps the biggest myth of all times, when it comes to choosing Brown Eggs vs White Eggs, many of us say Brown eggs are more nutritious and contain more protein than white ones. But are they? Do brown eggs contain more protein than white ones? We have always lived with this, let’s find out what’s the difference between Brown Eggs and White Eggs.

Brown Eggs vs White Eggs: Myth or Fact?

Let’s start by putting the color of shells, finding out why exactly they have colors and then moving to which one is healthier or more natural in Brown Eggs vs White Eggs.

Color of Shells

The color of eggs is not because they are painted with something, that is because of one simple reason: White Chickens lay White Eggs while Brown Chicken lay Brown Eggs (1, 2). The breed of the chicken determines the color of the eggs. Plymouth Rocks and Rhode Island Reds lay brown-shelled eggs. These hens produce eggs with protoporphyrin IX, a pigment made from heme that provide it brown color.

Brown Eggs vs White Eggs Color
Color of Eggs

Summary: The Brown Hens give Brown Eggs while White Hens give White Eggs.

Nutritional Value: Which one is Healthier?

If you ask people who take brown eggs why they prefer them, they will say they are more healthier and contain more protein. If asked why, their answers are blunt.

The real answer is: They both have Same Nutritional Value in terms of Protein, Vitamins and Calories (3, 4, 5). To summarize, they have 3.5gm of Protein and around 80 Calories.

Does color of shell changes nutritional value of the egg? Again, a Big No!(6)

The amount of nutritional value may vary with Chicken quality, how well fed it is, how young and healthy chicken is. For example, a chicken which roams in sunlight for 3-4 times a day will gives containing more amount of Vitamin D. Likewise, a chicken fed with Omega-3 fatty acids will give eggs with more value of omega-3 fatty acids.

Check out Nutritional value of Brown Eggs vs White Eggs below:

Nutrient White Yolk % Total in White
Protein 3.6 g 2.7g 57%
Fat 0.05g 4.5g 1%
Calcium 2.3 mg 21.9 mg 9.5%
Magnesium 3.6 mg 0.85 mg 80.8%
Iron 0.03 mg 0.4 mg 6.2%
Phosphorus 5 mg 66.3 mg 7%
Potassium 53.8 mg 18.5 mg 74.4%
Sodium 54.8 mg 8.2 mg 87%
Zinc 0.01 mg 0.4 mg 0.2%
Copper 0.008 mg 0.013 mg 38%
Manganese 0.004 mg 0.009 mg 30.8%
Selenium 6.6 mcg 9.5 mcg 41%
Thiamin 0.01 mg 0.03 mg 3.2%
Riboflavin 0.145 mg 0.09 mg 61.7%
Niacin 0.035 mg 0.004 mg 89.7%
Pantothenic acid. 0.63 mg 0.51 mg 11%
B6 0.002 mg 0.059 mg 3.3%
Folate 1.3 mcg 24.8 mcg 5%
B12 0.03 mcg 0.331 mcg 8.3%
Vitamin A 0 IU 245 IU 0%
Vitamin E 0 mg 0.684 mg 0%
Vitamin D 0 IU 18.3 IU 0%
Vitamin K 0 IU 0.119 IU 0%
DHA and AA 0 94 mg 0%
Carotenoids 0 mcg 21 mcg 0%


Summary: Regardless of the color, White vs Brown Eggs, both contain same nutritional value.

Then why are Brown Eggs costlier than White Eggs?

Again, they may say it’s because of the taste. Definitely incorrect, they have the similar taste (7). Apart from the nutritional value, they possess same taste. The taste only varies depending on condition of hen that lay the egg.

In earlier times, Brown eggs were usually larger than white ones, so their price was increased to make up for extra benefit (8). Today, they both are almost same the size.

Summary: The taste of Brown vs White Eggs is same, regardless of the price difference.


So, next time someone tells you Brown Eggs are better than White Eggs and contain more nutritional value, slap them on face. Don’t be a fool, believe in facts rather than statements.

Man Gets Sucked Into MRI Machine: Horror and Death


Mumbai: The dreadful news of MRI accident came from Nair Hospital, Mumbai where a man carrying oxygen cylinder was sucked into Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine. The 32-year old Mr. Rajesh Maru, suffered a horrible death as metal oxygen cylinder got sucked into magnetic force of MRI and burst to release oxygen.

Rajesh has went to accompany his elder relative who was being treated at the same hospital. A ward boy had instructed him to carry the oxygen cylinder with him to MRI machine, upon being asked if it was safe, they were told it was absolutely safe and common practice.

Rajesh Maru was carrying Oxygen Cylinder in MRI room
Rajesh Maru was carrying Oxygen Cylinder in MRI room

As the negligence poured in, the burst of oxygen cylinder upon being sucked by MRI machine, led to leakage of vast amount oxygen. Upon inhalation of excessive oxygen by Rajesh, he died within minutes of the MRI accident.

Harish Solanki, brother-in-law of Rajesh stated:

He went there to visit my ailing mother. A ward boy told him to carry an oxygen cylinder with him to MRI room which is prohibited. It all happened because of the carelessness of hospital’s doctors and administration. No security guard was either present to tell him that he should not carry oxygen cylinder with him to MRI room.

He added:

As he entered the room, the MRI machine sucked him in due to magnetic force as he had oxygen cylinder with him.  He died within two minutes. No hospital authority has approached us accepting their mistake.

An FIR was later registered against the Doctor on duty, Siddhant Shah, and the ward boy involved, Vitthal Chavan along with another female ward lady involved, Sunita Surve. They were charged IPC Section 304A of Death by Negligence. Maharashtra CM Devendra Fadnavis had announced Rs.5 Lac for victim’s family.

[Video] Real Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Surgery


This Video explains Why and How of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Surgery done most commonly for Stones in Gall Bladder, also known as Cholelithiasis. Nowadays, nearly every fourth person is having gall bladder stones, and they are often getting their gall bladder removed. It therefore becomes a necessity to atleast know the basics for this surgery as a doctor, or even as a medical student.


Cyanosis: Differential Diagnosis, History, Examination


The Cyanosis is the abnormal bluish or purple discoloration of the skin and/or mucous membranes due to reduced hemoglobin in the blood (less than 5 g/dL). We are going to put differential diagnosis of Cyanosis, then discuss History, Examination and Investigations.

Cyanosis is of two types: Central and Peripheral. Central occurs due to poor oxygenation in lungs while Peripheral occurs due to inadequate or obstructed circulation.

Differential Diagnosis


  1. Severe respiratory disease
  2. Pulmonary edema
  3. Pulmonary embolism
  4. Congenital cyanotic heart disease


  1. Methaemoglobinaemia
  2. Sulphaemoglobinaemia
  3. All causes of central cyanosis
  4. Cold exposure
  5. Raynaud’s phenomenon
  6. Arterial occlusion
  7. Venous occlusion
  8. Acrocyanosis


Central cyanosis


Cyanosis due to congenital heart disease causing anatomical right to left shunts may have been present from birth or the first few years of life. Immediate onset may be due to pulmonary emboli or cardiac failure. Acute onset may be precipitated by pneumonia and asthma. Patients with COPD develop it over many years. Accompanying polycythemia may exacerbate it in these patients.

Chest pain

Cyanosis associated with pleuritic chest pain may be due to pulmonary emboli or pneumonia. Dull, aching chest tightness is experienced by patients who develop it from pulmonary edema as a complication of myocardial infarction.


Sudden onset of dyspnea can occur with pulmonary emboli and pulmonary edema, while conditions such as asthma may produce a more gradual onset.

Past medical history and drug history

Any co-existing respiratory disease is significant, as it can result from any lung disease of sufficient severity. Consumption of drugs such as phenacetin and sulphonamides may precipitate methaemoglobinaemia and sulphaemoglobinaemia, respectively.

Peripheral cyanosis

General history

Acrocyanosis is a condition in which the hands are persistently blue and cold; it is not associated with pain. Raynaud’s phenomenon is the episodic three-color change that occurs, with arterial vasospasm (white), cyanosis (blue) and reactive hyperemia (red). It may be idiopathic or be associated with connective tissue diseases, and drugs such as beta blockers.

Peripheral type may also result from acute arterial occlusion and is accompanied by pain and mottling of the skin. Iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis can produce a painful blue leg, termed phlegmasia cerulea dolens.



Pneumonia and pulmonary emboli may be associated with pyrexia.


It is often difficult to detect minor degrees of it cyanosis. Central type produces a blue discoloration of the mucous membranes and digits; peripheral type produces blue discoloration only of the digits. Episodic peripheral type may be due to Raynaud’s disease and this may be associated with small areas of infarction on the fingertips.

The presence of clubbing may be due to congenital cyanotic heart disease. Classically, patients with chronic bronchitis appear cyanosed with a poorly expanding barreled chest. The JVP is elevated with congestive cardiac failure.

Respiratory examination

Poor chest expansion occurs with chronic bronchitis and asthma. Unilateral impairment of expansion may occur with lobar pneumonia; in addition, dullness to percussion is experienced over the area of consolidation. Localized crepitation may be auscultated with lobar pneumonia, but is more widespread with bronchopneumonia, pulmonary edema and chronic bronchitis.

Air entry is poor with chronic bronchitis and asthma. Bronchial breathing may be auscultated over an area of consolidation, and additional sounds such as wheezing may be heard with asthma.

General Investigations

Oxygen saturation

Saturation is usually below 85%


Decreased pO2 all severe lung disease


Hb increased chronic cyanosis. WCC increased pneumonia and pulmonary embolism


Features of myocardial infarction. Non-specific abnormalities with pulmonary emboli


Pneumonia, pulmonary infarct, cardiac failure

Specific Investigations

Sputum and Blood cultures


V/Q scan or CT pulmonary angiography

Pulmonary embolus


Cardiac failure

Hb spectroscopy

Methaemoglobinaemia, sulphaemoglobinaemia

Digital subtraction angiography

Acute arterial occlusion

Duplex Doppler or venography

Acute venous occlusion

AK Khurana Textbook of Ophthalmology PDF Download


The AK Khurana Textbook of Ophthalmology is a book used by Medical students during their third year of MBBS. This is the fourth edition of book, you can find 6th or 7th here also. The links to AK Khurana Textbook of Ophthalmology PDF Format have been provided for free download below.

AK Khurana Ophthalmology PDF Book

The free book has over 616 pages which include the 2 units, beautifully relating the text to the practical knowledge. The book is the standard book used in medical colleges and universities for their third year ophthalmology curriculum. There are 24 chapters in total in the book, which are as follows under the two sections given below:


  1. Anatomy and Development of the Eye
  2. Physiology of Eye and Vision
  3. Optics and Refraction
  4. Diseases of the Conjunctiva
  5. Diseases of the Cornea
  6. Diseases of the Sclera
  7. Diseases of the Uveal Tract
  8. Diseases of the Lens
  9. Glaucoma
  10. Diseases of the Vitreous
  11. Diseases of the Retina
  12. Neuro-ophthalmology
  13. Strabismus and Nystagmus
  14. Diseases of the Eyelids
  15. Diseases of the Lacrimal Apparatus
  16. Diseases of the Orbit
  17. Ocular Injuries
  18. Ocular Therapeutics, Lasers and Cryotherapy in Ophthalmology
  19. Systemic Ophthalmology
  20. Community Ophthalmology


  1. Clinical Methods in Ophthalmology
  2. Clinical Ophthalmic Cases
  3. Darkroom Procedures
  4. Ophthalmic Instruments and Operative Ophthalmology

Refer to 3rd year Syllabus for complete details.

About the Author:

  • AK Khurana


AK Khurana is the so far best book one can use for studying and passing Ophthalmology during their Third year MBBS in Medical Colleges. The two sections cover Anatomy, Physiology and Diseases of Eye as well as Practical Ophthalmology. In the end of the book, there are instruments and surgical procedures given beautifully. These help mbbs students to work through their practical examinations at end of semesters.

There is much to learn in Ophthalmology though, from Vision test to diagnosing various diseases, it is always fun to find out new stuff. There are surgeries done for Ophthalmology too, for which you will have to be attentive or you may miss them.

Suggestions to those who are looking forward to establishing an understanding in Ophthalmology are as follows:

  1. Read up everything, even if you are not in a mood to mug up. It will clear out some concepts and some things are bound to stay in your long term memory.
  2. Focus on the diseases more, and practical tests like Snellen Chart. Checking vision is always fun and basic part.
  3. Make up a habit of co-relating everything and you will find the book is almost everything you already know.
  4. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you understand clinical methods. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

AK Khurana Ophthalmology PDF eBook Download

You can download the AK Khurana Textbook of Ophthalmology by link given below. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page.


Read Online


Please note these are external links and we do not host any downloads on our website. If you are the owner of the content or have disputes regarding the terms, please read our complete Disclaimer page or leave us a message via our Contact Us page. Any violation or infringement will be immediately removed upon confirmation.

Anatomy Mnemonics for MBBS Students First Year Notes


Many students often find themselves in trouble with First year Anatomy Mnemonics during MBBS. Indeed they work hard compared to their upcoming semesters, but still they find it difficult to handle the stress. They move towards making short notes and mnemonics and waste a lot of time.

Here, we have made some mnemonics for those students looking for Anatomy Mnemonics, including Upper Limb, Lower Limb, Thorax and Head & Neck. Just save the page or bookmark us so you don’t spend your crucial time before exams making mnemonics.

Anatomy Mnemonics

Below are the anatomy mnemonics you will ever need. They are mixture of Upper limb, Lower limb, Thorax and Head & Neck. If you have any other, please do mention them in the comments section below, we will love to update them with your help!

Deep Muscles of the Back

“I Love Spaghetti – Some More Ragu”: Iliocostalis, Longissimis, Spinalis – Semispinalis,

Multifidus, Rotatores

Brachial Plexus

“Really Thirsty? Drink Cold Beer” or “Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beers”: Roots, Trunks, Divisions, Cords, Branches

“MARMU” (terminal nerves): Musculocutaneous, Axillary, Radial, Median, Ulnar

Muscles Inserting into Humerus

“A lady between two majors”

Pectoralis major attaches to lateral lip of bicipital groove, the teres major attaches to

medial lip of bicipital groove, and the latissimus dorsi attaches to the floor of bicipital

groove. The “lati” is between two “majors”

Carpal Bones

(4 proximal, lateral to medial; 4 distal, lateral to medial)

“She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catch Her” (Thanks to Naman Sachdeva for this)


“Some Lovers/Lions Try Positions That They Can’t Handle”:

Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform, Trapezoid, Trapezium, Capitate, Hamate.

“TrapeziUM at the thUMb”

“TrapeziOID is inSIDE”

“Flexor carpi superficialis splits in two, to permit profundus to pass through”

Radial Nerve Innervations

“BEST”: Brachioradialis, Extensors, Supinator, Triceps.

Median Nerve Innervations

“2LOAF”: Lateral 2 Lumbricals, Opponens pollicis, Abductor pollicis brevis, Flexor

pollicis brevis.

Rotator Cuff Muscles

(3 greater tubercle; 1 lesser tubercle)

“SITS”: Superspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis

Transverse Scapular Ligament

Army over (bridge), Navy under (bridge)

Artery goes over and Nerve goes under the ligament

Cubital Fossa

(lateral to medial)

“TAN”: Tendon (biceps brachii), Artery (brachial), Nerve (medial)


“PAD”: Palmar (hand) muscles ADduct

“DAB”: Dorsal (hand) muscles ABduct

“All For One And One For All” (medial to lateral):

Abductor digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi, Opponens digiti minimi, Adductor policis,

Opponens pollicis, Flexor pollicis brevis, Abductor pollicis brevis

Axillary Artery Branches

“Save The Lions And Protect Species”: Supreme/Superior Thoracic Artery,

Thoracoacromial Artery, Lateral Thoracic, Anterior Circumflex Humeral, Posterior

Circumflex Humeral, Subscapular (thoracodorsal and circumflex scapular)

Thoracoacromial Artery Branches

“CAlifornia Police Department”: Clavicular, Acromial, Pectoral, Deltoid

Pectoral Nerves

“Lateral is less, medial is more”

Lateral pectoral nerve goes through pectoralis major, while medial pectoral nerve goes

though both pectoralis major and minor.

Deep Posterior Leg Muscles

“Down The Hatch”: flexor Digitorum longus, Tibialis posterior, flexor Hallucis longus

Medial Malleolus

(anterior to posterior)

“Tom, Dick, And Very Nervous Harry”: Tibialis posterior, flexor Digitorum longus

tendon, posteriotibial Artery, posteriotibial Vein, tibial Nerve, flexor Hallucis longus


(connections to pes anserinus)

Sartorius (Femoral nerve), Gracilis (Obturator nerve), SemiTendinosus (Sciatic nerve)

Femoral Triangle Boundaries

Please suggest any anatomy mnemonics for these if you have. Here are ours:

“So I May Always Love Sally”: Superiorly – Inguinal ligament, Medially – Adductor

longus, Laterally – Sartorius

Order of Structures in Femoral Triangle / Groin

(lateral to medial)

“NAVEL”: Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty space, Lymphatics

Leg Anterior Compartment

“The Hospitals Are Not Dirty Places”: Tibialis anterior, extensor Hallucis longus,

anterior tibial Artery, deep fibular Nerve, extensor Digitorum longus, Peronius tertius

Cruciate Ligament Paths and Insertions

“PAMs ApPLes”: Posterior [passes] Anteriorly [and inserts] Medially; Anterior [passes]

Posteriorly [and inserts] Laterally

Terrible (Unhappy) Triad Knee Injury

(American football injury)

“ATM” for money-maker: Anterior cruciate ligament, Tibial (medial) collateral ligament,

Medial meniscus

Leg Nerves

“FED”: Fibular nerve Everts and Dorsiflexes the foot

“TIP”: Tibial nerve Inverts and Plantarflexes the foot


(plantar region of foot)

Layer 1: Abductor Hallucis, Flexor digitorum brevis, Abductor digiti minimi

Layer 2: Two tendons (Flexor Hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus), Two muscles

(lumbricles, quadratus plantae)

Layer 3: Flexor Hallucis brevis, Adductor Hallucis (oblique and transverse heads), Flexor

digiti minimi brevis

Tarsal Tunnel Contents

(superior to inferior)

“Tiny Dogs Are Not Hunters”: Tibialis posterior, flexor Digitorum longus, posterior

tibial Artery, tibial Nerve, flexor Hallucis longus

Inguinal Canal Walls

(superior moving around in order to posterior)

“2MALT: 2M, 2A, 2L, 2T”:

Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles: internal oblique Muscle, transverse abdominus Muscle

Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses: Aponeurosis of external oblique, Aponeurosis of internal


Lower wall (floor): 2 Ligaments: inguinal Ligament, lacunar Ligament

Posterior wall: 2Ts: Transversalis fascia, conjoint Tendon

Tarsal Bones

“Traverse City (is) Noted (for) MIchigan’s Lovely Cherries”: Talus Calcaneus (new row),

Navicular (new row), Medial Intermediate cuneiforms, Lateral cuneiform, Cuboid

Hip Lateral Rotators

(Femur Greater Trochanter Attachments)

“P-GO-GO-Q”: Piriformis Gemellus superior Obturator internus Gemellus inferior

Obturator externus Quadratus femoris

Ribs (superior to inferior), Neck and Sublingual Hiatus (medial to lateral)

“VAN”: Vein, Artery, Nerve

Vagal Nerve Path Into Thorax

“Not Left Behind”: Left is anterior (not behind), Right is posterior

Lung Vessels

“RALS”: Right lung artery is Anterior to broncus, Left lung artery is Superior to bronchus

Structures Piercing The Diaphragm

“I 8 10 Eggs At 12”: T8 = IVC, T10 = Esophagus, T12 = Aorta

Heart Valves

“RAT, LAMB”: Right Atrial Tricuspid, Left Atrial Mitral (Bicuspid) – or –

“LAB RAT”: Left Atrial Bicuspid, Right Atrial Tricuspid

Spinal Nerves

The anatomy mnemonics for Spinal nerves are:

“C3-4-5 keep the phrenic nerve (or diaphragm) alive”

“C5-6-7 raise your arms to heaven” (long thoracic nerve roots innervate serratus anterior)

Scrotum Layers

(superficial to deep)

“Some Dang Englishman Called It The Testis”: Skin, Dartos, External spermatic fascia,

Cremaster, Internal spermatic fascia, Tunica vaginalis,Testis

Innervation of the Penis

“S2,3,4 keep the penis off the floor”

Refers to the innervation of the penis by branches of the pudendal nerve, which is derived

from spinal cord levels S2-4.

Point, Shoot, Score

Parasympathetic for erection, Sympathetic for ejaculation, Somatomotor for

Great Vessels

“ABC’S”: Aortic arch gives off the Brachiocephalic trunk, the left Common carotid, and

the left Subclavian artery

“Boston College Stinks”: right Brachiocephalic trunk, left Common carotid, left

Subclavian artery

Portal Triad

“DAV”: bile Duct, hepatic Artery, portal Vein

Liver Lobes

“GQ”: The Gallbladder is next to the Quadrate lobe

Pathway After Stomach

“Dow Jones Industrial Climbing Average Closing Stock Report”: Duodenum, Jejunum,

Ileum, Cecum, Appendix, Colon (ascending/transverse), Sigmoid colon, Rectum


“1,3,5,7,9,11”; It measures 1x3x5 inches, weighs 7 ounces and lies between ribs 9-11.

Thoracic Duct

“The duck is between two gooses.”

duck = thoracic duct

2 gooses = azyGOUS vein and esophaGOUS


“Brent Spiner Gained Lieutenant Commander”

Basale, Spinosum, Granulosum, Lucidum, Corneum

Nasal Cavity Components

“Never Call Me Needle Nose!”: external Nares, Conchae, Meatuses, internal Nares, Nasopharynx

Scalp Layers

(superficial to deep)

“SCALP”: Skin, Connective tissue, Aponeurosis, Loose areolar tissue, Pericranium

Horner’s Syndrome Symptoms

“SPAM”: Sunken eyeballs/Symphathetic plexus (cervical) affected, Ptosis, Anhydrosis,


Bell’s Palsy Symptoms


“BELL’S Palsy”: Blink reflex abnomal, Earache, Lacrimation (deficient, excess), Loss of

taste, Sudden onset, Palsy of VII nerve muscles

Potentially Absent Muscles

“5 P’s”: Palmaris longus [upper limb] Plantaris [lower limb] Peroneus tertius [lower limb]

Pyramidalis [anterior abdominal wall] Psoas minor [posterior abdominal wall]

Facial Bones

“Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh!”: Vomer, Conchae, Nasal, Maxilla,

Mandible, Palatine, Zygomatic, Lacrimal

Deep Tendon Reflexes Root Supply

(nursery rhyme)

One, two– buckle my shoe. Three, four– kick the door. Five, six– pick up sticks. Seven,

eight– shut the gate. S1,2 = ankle jerk L3,4 = knee jerk C5,6 = biceps and brachioradialis

C7,8 = triceps

Supra-orbital Fissure

Structures that pass through it:

“Luscious French Tarts Sit Naked In Anticipation Of Sex.”

Lacrimal nerve, Frontal nerve, Trochlear nerve, Superior branch of oculomotor nerve,

Nasociliary nerve, Inferior branch of oculomotor nerve, Abducent nerve, Ophthalmic

veins, Sympathetic nerves

Cranial Bones

“Old People From Texas Eat Spiders”

Occipital, Parietal, Frontal, Temporal, Ethnoid, Sphenoid

Cranial Nerves

The anatomy mnemonics for Cranial nerves given below are the best and most widely used by medical students. Perhaps you have heard of them already:

  • I On (Olfactory)
  • II Old (Optic)
  • III Olympus (Oculomotor)
  • IV Towering (Trochlear)
  • V Tops, (Trigeminal)
  • VI A (Abducens)
  • VII Finn (Facial)
  • VIII And (Auditory)
  • IX German (Glossopharyngeal)
  • X Viewed (Vagus)
  • XI Astounding (Accessory)
  • XII Hops (Hypoglossal)

Another one is: Oh Oh Oh Try Try Again Failure Victory Give Value And Happiness (Thanks to Ali for mentioning it in comments)

where O- Olfactory, O- Optic, O- Occulomotor, T- Trochlear, T- Trigeminal, A- Abducens, F- Facial, V-Vestibulocochlear (Auditory), G- Glossopharyngeal, V- Vagus, A- Accessory, H- Hypoglossal


  • I Some (Sensory)
  • II Say (Sensory)
  • III Marry (primarily Motor)
  • IV Money, (primarily Motor)
  • V But (Both)
  • VI My (primarily Motor)
  • VII Brother (Both)
  • VIII Says (Sensory)
  • IX Big (Both)
  • X Bras (Both)
  • XI Matter (primarily Motor)
  • XII More (primarily Motor)

Extraocular Muscles

Anatomy mnemonics for Extra-ocular muscles are:

“LR6 – SO4 – rest3” or “(SO4LR6)3”

LR6 Lateral rectus –> VI abducens

SO4 Superior Oblique –> IV Trochlear

Remaining 4 eyeball movers –> III oculomotor

Branches of Suclavian Artery

“VT is Cold”: Vertebral, Thyrocervical trunk, Costocervical trunk

External Carotid Artery Branches

“Some Anatomists Like Freaking Out Poor Medical Students” or “Suzy Always Lays

Flat On Pillows Making Sweets Terrific”: Superior thyroid, Ascending pharyngeal,

Lingual, Facial, Occipital, Posterior auricular, Maxillary, Superificial Temporal

Internal Jugular Vein

(inferior to superior)

“Medical Schools Let Confident People In”: Middle thyroid, Superior thyroid, Lingual,

Common facial, Pharyngeal, Inferior petrosal sinus

Facial Nerve Branches

“Please, To Zanzibar By Motor Car” or “Ten Zombies Bought My Car”

Posterior auricular, Temporal, Zygomatic, Buccal, Masseteric, Cervical

Trigeminal Nerve – Where Branches Exit Skull

“Standing Room Only”: Superior orbital fissure (V1), foramen Rotundum (V2), foramen

Ovale (V3)

Ansa Cervicalis Nerves

“GHost THought SOmeone STupid SHot Irene”: GenioHyoid, ThyroHyoid, Superior

Omohyoid, SternoThyfoid, SternoHyoid, Inferior omohyoid

Cervical Plexus – Arrangement of Important Nerves

“GLAST”: 4 compass points, clockwise from north on the right side of neck: Great

auricular, Lesser occipital, Accessory nerve (pops out between L and S), Supraclavicular,

Transverse cervical

CN V – V3 Innervated Muscles

(Brachial Arch 1 Derivatives)

“M.D. My T.V.”: Mastication (masseter, temporalis, pterygoids), Digastric (anterior

belly), MYlohyoid, tensor Tympani, tensor Veli palatine

V3 Sensory Branches

“Buccaneers Are Inferior Linguists”: Buccal, Auriculotemporal, Inferior alveolar,


Facial Expression Muscles

(Making A Face To Say PSS)

“PSS”: Posterior belly of digastric, Stapedius, Stylohyoid

Lacrimal Nerve Course

(Story of 8 L’s)

Lacrimal nerve runs on Lateral wall of orbit above Lateral rectus, then Lets

communicating branch join in, then supplies Lacrimal gland, then Leaves it and supplies

Lateral upper eye Lid


Have any other anatomy mnemonics? Do share them in the comments section below, we will so love to hear new anatomy mnemonics from our readers!

NEET PG Results 2018 | Cutoff Marks | Updates


The NEET PG Results 2018 are out! Those who have appeared for the Post-Graduation exam after MBBS in December can now check their results here. Wish you all the best! The exams were held by NBE or National Board of Examination.

You can check your result for NEET PG Exam 2018 held in December 2017 here:

NEET PG Results 2018
NEET PG Results 2018

How to Check NEET PG 2018 Result?

Just enter your Candidate ID and Password with the Captcha. If you have not registered, then you can register with it and check result. You can download the Public Notice from NatBoard here:

Read Online


Cut-off Marks

The cut off marks are as follows:

General Category:50th Percentile: 321 marks

SC/ST/OBC/SC-PH/ST-PH/OBC-PH: 40th Percentile: 281

UR-PH: 45th Percentile: 300


The results are out and it seems like the cut-off is a lot lower than it was expected. How was your result? Do you also feel that there was some scam in NEET this year? There were indeed many news circulating and someone even shared whatsapp chat images of the scam. However, NBE has just stated nothing like that happened.

Updates and News

The latest update on the NEET PG 2018 seems like the website is currently down. It’s not your internet that is slow, but it is the server side that is slow. And the reason behind is so many students are trying to see their result at same time. So, when to try to see the result?

Although if you keep trying for the website, you may reach some point where you can enter roll number, date of birth and captcha, but you may still end up with lost page. If luck is with you, you may get the download document and see your result.

But we strictly suggest to check the result after 12am midnight till morning 9am. Or you can try around 2pm-4pm. Good luck with your results.

Let’s just hope it was another fake news, or if it was real, it would definitely be the biggest scam of early 2018! Share your thoughts using the comment section below or leave some feedback on NEET PG Results 2018.

Ananthanarayan and Paniker’s Textbook of Microbiology PDF Download


The Ananthanarayan and Paniker’s Textbook of Microbiology is a book used by Medical students during their second year of MBBS. This is the seventh edition of book, you can find 8th or 9th here also. The links to Ananthanarayan and Paniker’s Textbook of Microbiology PDF Format have been provided for free download below.

Ananthanarayan Microbiology PDF Book

The book has over 672 pages which include the 5 units, expanding the microbiology in a systematic manner. The seventh edition of Ananthanarayan has been released four years after their sixth edition, in the memory of Dr. R Ananthnaryana by Dr. Ck Jayaram Paniker. The book is one of the standard books used in medical colleges and universities for their second year microbiology curriculum. There are 68 chapters in total in the book, some of which are:

  1. Morphology and Physiology of Bacteria
  2. Culture Media
  3. Bacterial Taxonomy
  4. Infection
  5. Immunity
  6. Antigens
  7. Complement system
  8. Hypersensitivity
  9. Staphylococcus
  10. Streptococcus
  11. Mycobacterium I: Tuberculosis
  12. General Properties of Viruses
  13. Herpes Viruses
  14. Arbo Viruses
  15. Rhabdo Viruses
  16. Medical Mycology

Refer to 2nd year Syllabus for complete details.

About the Authors:

  1. Late Dr. R Ananthanarayan
  2. Dr. CK Jayaram Paniker


To be genuine, Microbiology is one of the subjects where students easily lose interest and focus eventually. The text looks similar every 3-4 pages after, and you end up mugging most of the things. But there are some topics you should never mug up, if you are unaware of them, just ask your seniors. Or we can point them in comments if you seek them.

The Ananthanarayan and Paniker’s textbook for Microbiology gives an insights to the subject of second year and shortens the text to a more precise image. The content you learn in microbiology is often related with pathology & Medicine and is very useful, just in case you ignore it, you will definitely wind up finding your microbiology book in some phase of your medical career.

Suggestions to those who are looking forward to establishing an understanding in Microbiology are as follows:

  1. Read up everything, even if you are not in a mood to mug up. It will clear out some concepts and some things are bound to stay in your long term memory.
  2. Try to co-relate the diseases with other subjects as you see them with the diagrams in the book. With more related content, you will explore things easily.
  3. Make up a habit of co-relating everything and you will find the book is almost everything you already know.
  4. Attend practicals, they are always helpful, right?
  5. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you understand clinical medicine. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Ananthanarayan & Paniker’s Microbiology PDF eBook Download

You can download the Ananthanarayan and Paniker’s Textbook of Microbiology by link given below. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page.


Read Online


Please note these are external links and we do not host any downloads on our website. If you are the owner of the content or have disputes regarding the terms, please read our complete Disclaimer page or leave us a message via our Contact Us page. Any violation or infringement will be immediately removed upon confirmation.

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