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NEET PG 2018 Result Announced: Check Here

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Neet PG 2018 Result

The NEET PG 2018 Result has just been declared. If you were one of the aspiring candidates who gave the NEET PG 2018, then you can check your result here.

Check Your Result Here

You can check the result on the official website of NatBoard or NBE. All you have to do is:

Click Here To Download Result PDF

Click Here: NEET 2018 Result

Cut Off Marks NEET PG 2018

The cut off marks (Total of 1200 Marks) have been set as:

  • General Category: 50th Percentile: 321 Marks out of 1200
  • SC/ST/OBC/SC-PH/ST-PH/OBC-PH: 40th Percentile: 281 Marks out of 1200
  • UR-PH: 45th Percentile: 300 Marks out of 1200

Score card will not be sent individually to the candidates. Candidates are requested to download their score card from website: https://nbe.edu.in

And remember, best of luck!

ECG Basics: Axis Deviation and P wave Abnormalities Causes

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We are starting a new thread of ECG Basics: Conceptual Understanding Made Easy. To kick start the topic, we will discuss Axis Deviation and P wave abnormalities causes on ECG. Many Students after MBBS (and some Doctors after graduation!) give up hopes on even trying to understand ECG. The simplest mnemonic or trick for Axis Deviation has been given below. We have also simplified P Wave ECG findings below. Stay connected for more updates!

Axis Deviation

Trick

  • Left Thumb= Lead I
  • Right Thumb= Lead II

Now once you have identified which thumb is which, simply start pointing them as below:

  • If QRS in lead I and II are both positive
    • Normal
  • If QRS in lead I is up (+ve) and in lead II is down (-ve)
    • Left Axis Deviation (Thumbs LEFT each other)
  • If QRS in lead I is down (-ve) and in lead II is up (+ve)
    • Right Axis Deviation (Thumbs are RIGHT towards each other)
  • If both lead I and II are negative
    • Right Superior Axis Deviation (Extreme Right Axis Deviation) (Both thumbs down)
Axis Deviation Causes
Axis Deviation Causes

Causes

  • Left Axis Deviation
    1. Inferior MI or Myocardial Infarction (Lead II negative)
    2. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH)
    3. Left Anterior Fascicular Block (or Hemiblock)
    4. Obese
    5. Wolf Parkinson White Syndrome (delta wave)
  • Right Axis Deviation
    1. Lateral MI (Lead I negative)
    2. Right Ventricular Hypertrophy (RVH)
    3. Left Posterior Fascicular Block (or Hemiblock)
    4. Thin, Tall, Children
    5. Chronic Lung Disease
    6. Pulmonary Embolism
  • Extreme Right Axis Deviation (No Man’s Land) = (North West Axis)
    1. Congenital Heart Disease
    2. Left Ventricular Aneurysm
Axis Deviation Causes 2
Axis Deviation Causes 2

P Wave

P Wave Pathologies Causes
P Wave Pathologies Causes

Normal

  • Normal Duration
    • Normal P Wave is less than 0.12 secs (<3 small squares)
  • Normal Amplitude
    • Normal P Wave has an amplitude less than 2.5mm in limb leads (I, II, III, avR, avL, avF)
    • Also, it is less than 1.5mm in precordial/chest leads (V1-V5)

P Wave Abnormalities Causes

  • P Pulmonale (peaked P waves)
    • ECG Finding- 2.5mm in limb leads or >1.5mm in chest leads
    • Cause- Right Atrial Enlargement (Cor Pulmonale- Pulmonary Hypertension in chronic respiratory disease)
  • P Mitrale (bifid P wave)
    • ECG Finding- 0.12 secs/ >3 small squares
    • Cause- Left Atrial Enlargement (MS- Mitral Stenosis)

If you loved this post, or have any feedback or corrections to drop, please feel free to let us know using the comments section below. We love to respond to our precious readers.

PSVT vs AFib: ECG and Symptoms Difference

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PSVT or Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia is a Narrow complex Ventricular Tachycardia that occurs abruptly when normal electrical impulses of the heart are disrupted. We have provided short notes on PSVT for your exam preparation for Cardiology subject below (especially for Plab part 1). Any queries are welcome in the comments section below.

You can check out our Plab 1 Free Download Content here!

ECG of Paroxysmal SupraVentricular Tachycardia

  • The ECG will demonstrate an absolutely regular RR interval with Heart rate around 150-250
  • It will also show Narrow QRS- <0.12 seconds QRS (on ECg, 3 small squares = 0.04×3)
  • Also, there will be QRS followed by T wave (Absent P waves)

PSVT vs Afib Difference in ECG

It is easy yet crucial to differentiate PSVT from Atrial Fibrillation from ECG as both have absent P waves. You can easily distinguish as PSVT will have regular R-R interval while AF will have irregular R-R interval.

PSVT vs Torsades De Pointes on ECG

While Management of SVT involves Carotid massage and Valsalva Manuever followed by IV Adenosine, IV Magnesium Sulphate is given for Torsades de pointes, also known as Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia

Management of PSVT

Initial Line

  • Initial step involves Valsalva manoeuvre and giving Carotid Massage

Not improved?

If the patient does not improves with above steps, we give Adenosine bolus for management.

  • Intravenous Adenosine (6mg Rapid IV Bolus)
  • Still not improved?- give additional 12mg Adenosine
  • Still not improved?- give another 12mg Adenosine
  • Still not improved?- Electrical DC “cardioversion”

Note

  • Adenosine is contraindicated in Asthmatics as it can cause Bronchospasm
  • Verapamil (CCB) is preferred option in SVT in patient with Asthma

Prevention of future episodes

  • Beta-blockers such as Propranolol or Radio-frequency ablation

Management of PSVT Short Notes

  • First step
    • Carotid massage and Valsalva maneuver
  • 2nd step
    • IV Adenosine 6mg
    • Another IV Adenosine 12mg
    • Another IV Adenosine 18mg
  • 3rd step
    • Verapamil or beta-blocker
  • 4th step
    • Cardioversion (DC Shock) (First step if hemodynamically unstable)
  • ECG- Narrow QRS (<0.12 seconds) f/b T wave and no P wave with Regular R-R interval
  • Prophylaxis- Beta blocker or Radio-frequency ablation
  • CCB (Verapamil) instead of Adenosine in Asthmatics

Video

Check out the video below if you are looking for detailed aspects of the topic:

Conclusion

Patients of Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia usually present with racing heart and their heart rates are spiking. Once Adenosine is administered, heart rate returns to normal within seconds. It may occur again after a while, and the process is repeated. Management is crucial and it is super important to differentiate it from Atrial Fibrillation as both have different management.

We hope these short notes help you out in exams. You can ask us your queries or leave feedback in the comments section below.

Inderbir Singh Embryology PDF Book Download

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Anatomy is a vast subject that is mastered only with learning and application at the same time. While Embryology, a branch of Anatomy deals with study of embryogenesis, formation of embryo from a fertilized egg. Inderbir Singh Embryology PDF book for free download is available below through direct google drive links for you to help you out with your studies into this sub-section. This First year subject for MBBS shall become easier for you if you possess the appropriate books required.

Inderbir Singh Embryology PDF Book

There are 22 Chapters in Professor Inderbir Singh Book of Embryology which are as follows:

  1. Introduction and Some Preliminary Considerations
    •• Basic Qualities of Living Organisms
    •• Reproduction
    •• Development of a Human Being
    •• Embryology
    •• Subdivisions of Embryology
    •• Importance of Embryology in the Medical Profession
    •• Basic Processes in Embryology
  2. Genetics and Molecular Biology in Embryology
    •• Genetic Basis of Developmental Anatomy
    •• Genes
    •• Chromosomes
    •• Inheritance of Genetic Disorders
    •• Cell Division
  3. Reproductive System, Gametogenesis, Ovarian and Menstrual Cycles
    •• Male Reproductive System
    •• Female Reproductive System
    •• Gametogenesis
    •• Ovarian Cycle
    •• Menstrual Cycle
    •• Hormonal Control of Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
  4. Fertilization and Formation of Germ Layers
    •• Fertilization
    •• Sex Determination
    •• Test Tube Babies/In Vitro Fertilization
    •• Cleavage
    •• Formation of Germ Layers
    •• Time Table of Events Described in this Chapter
    •• Embryological Explanation for Clinical Conditions or
    Anatomical Observations
  5. Further Development of Embryonic Disc
    •• Formation of Notochord
    •• Formation of the Neural Tube
    •• Subdivisions of Intraembryonic Mesoderm
    •• Lateral Plate Mesoderm—Formation of Intraembryonic Coelom
    •• Intermediate Mesoderm
    •• Yolk Sac
    •• Folding of Embryo
    •• Connecting Stalk
    •• Allantoic Diverticulum
    •• Effect of Head and Tail Folds on Positions of Other Structures
    •• Time Table of Events Described in this Chapter
  6. Placenta, Fetal Membranes and Twinning
    •• Formation of Placenta
    •• Fetal/Extraembryonic Membranes
    •• Multiple Births and Twinning
    •• Embryological Basis for Clinical Conditions or Anatomical Observations
  7. Formation of Tissues of the Body
    •• Epithelia
    •• Connective Tissue
    •• Muscular Tissue
    •• Nervous Tissue
  8. Integumentary System (Skin and Its Appendages, Mammary Gland)
    •• Skin
    •• Appendages of Skin
    •• Time Table of Some Events Described in this Chapter
    •• Embryological Explanation for Clinical Conditions or Anatomical Observations in Skin
  9. Pharyngeal Arches
    •• Pharyngeal/Branchial Arches
    •• Derivatives of Skeletal Elements
    •• Nerves and Muscles of the Arches
    •• Fate of Ectodermal Clefts
    •• Fate of Endodermal Pouches
    •• Development of Palatine Tonsil
    •• Development of the Thymus
    •• Development of Parathyroid Glands
    •• Development of Thyroid Gland
    •• Time Table of Some Events in the Development of Pharyngeal Arches
    •• Embryological Explanation for Clinical Conditions or Anatomical Observations
  10. Skeletal System and Muscular System
    Part 1: Skeletal System
    •• Somites
    •• Development of Axial Skeleton
    •• Formation of Limbs
    •• Joints
    Part 2: Muscular System
    •• Skeletal Muscle
    •• Development of Muscular System
    •• Time Table of Some Events
    •• Clinical Case with Prenatal Ultrasound and Aborted Fetal Images:
    Embryological and Clinical Explanation
  11. Face, Nose and Palate
    •• Development of the Face
    •• Development of Various Parts of Face
    •• Development of Palate
    •• Time Table of Some Events in the Development of Face,
    Nose and Palate
    •• Embryological Explanation for Clinical Conditions or Anatomical Observations
  12. Alimentary System—I: Mouth, Pharynx and Related Structures
    •• Mouth
    •• Teeth
    •• Pharynx
    •• Tongue
    •• Derivatives of Oral Cavity
    •• Salivary Glands
    •• Time Table of Some Events Described in this Chapter
  13. Alimentary System—II: Gastrointestinal Tract
    •• Derivation of Individual Parts of Alimentary Tract
    •• Rotation of the Gut
    •• Fixation of the Gut
    •• Time Table of Some Events Described in this Chapter
    •• Embryological Basis for Clinical Conditions or Anatomical Observations
  14. Liver and Biliary Apparatus; Pancreas and Spleen; Respiratory System; Body Cavities and Diaphragm
    Liver and Biliary Apparatus
    •• Liver and Intrahepatic Biliary Apparatus
    •• Gallbladder and Extrahepatic Biliary Passages (Extrahepatic Biliary Apparatus)
    Pancreas and Spleen
    •• Pancreas
    •• Spleen
    Body Cavities and Diaphragm
    •• Body Cavities
    •• Diaphragm
    Respiratory System
    •• Larynx
    •• Trachea
    •• Extrapulmonary Bronchi
    •• Intrapulmonary Bronchi and Lungs
    •• Embryological Basis for Clinical Conditions or Anatomical Observations
  15. Cardiovascular System
    Part 1: Heart
    •• Components of Blood Vascular System
    •• Formation of Blood Cells and Vessels
    •• Extraembryonic Blood Vascular System
    •• Intraembryonic Blood Vascular System
    •• Development of Heart
    •• Development of Various Chambers of the Heart
    •• Exterior of the Heart
    •• Valves of the Heart
    •• Conducting System of the Heart
    •• Pericardial Cavity
    Part 2: Arteries
    •• Pharyngeal Arch Arteries and their Fate
    •• Development of Other Arteries
    Part 3: Veins
    •• Visceral Veins
    •• Somatic Veins
    •• Veins of the Abdomen
    •• Azygos System of Veins
    Part 4: Fetal Circulation
    •• Changes in the Circulation at Birth
    Part 5: Lymphatic System
    •• Time Table of Some Events Described in this Chapter
    •• Embryological Basis for Clinical Conditions or Anatomical Observations
  16. Urogenital System
    •• Development of Kidneys
    •• Absorption of Lower Parts of Mesonephric Ducts into Cloaca
    •• Development of the Ureter
    •• Development of the Urinary Bladder
    •• Development of the Female Urethra
    •• Development of the Male Urethra
    •• Development of the Prostate
    •• Paramesonephric Ducts
    •• Development of Uterus and Uterine Tubes
    •• Development of Vagina
    •• Development of External Genitalia
    •• Development of Testes
    •• Development of the Ovary
    •• Fate of Mesonephric Duct and Tubules in the Male
    •• Fate of Mesonephric Ducts and Tubules in the Female
    •• Control of Differentiation of Genital Organs
    •• Time Table of Some Events Described in this Chapter
  17. Nervous System
    •• Neural Tube and Its Subdivisions
    •• Neural Crest Cells
    •• Spinal Cord
    •• Brainstem
    •• Cerebellum
    •• Cerebral Hemisphere
    •• Autonomic Nervous System
    •• Time Table of Some Events in Nervous System Development
    •• Embryological Explanation for Clinical Conditions or Anatomical Observations of Nervous System
  18. Endocrine Glands
    •• Classification of Endocrine Glands
    •• Hypophysis Cerebri or Pituitary Gland
    •• Pineal Gland
    •• Adrenal Gland
    •• Chromaffin Tissue
    •• Time Table of Some Events Described in this Chapter
    •• Embryological Explanation for Clinical Conditions or Anatomical Observations in Eyeball
  19. Development of Eye
    •• Formation of the Optic Vesicle
    •• Formation of Lens Vesicle
    •• Formation of the Optic Cup
    •• Derivation of Parts of the Eyeball
    •• Accessory Structures of Eyeball
    •• Time Table of Some Important Events Described in this Chapter
    •• Embryological Explanation for Clinical Conditions or Anatomical Observations in Eyeball
  20. Development of the Ear
    •• Internal Ear
    •• Middle Ear
    •• External Ear
    •• Time Table of Some Events Described in this Chapter
    •• Embryological Explanation for Clinical Conditions or Anatomical Observations in Ear
  21. Clinical Applications of Embryology
    •• Gestational Period
    •• Growth of the Embryo
    •• Determining the Age of an Embryo
    •• Further Growth of the Fetus
    •• Determining the Age of a Living Fetus
    •• Control of Fetal Growth
    •• Causation of Congenital Anomalies (Teratogenesis)
    •• Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Diseases and Malformations
    •• Fetal Therapies
  22. Embryology Ready Reckoner
    •• Developmental Anatomy at a Glance
  • About the Author
    • Professor Inderbir Singh
  • About the Editor
    • V Subhadra Devi
      • MS (Anatomy)
      • Professor and Head
      • Department of Anatomy
      • Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences (Svims)
      • Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

Our First Year Books for MBBS are here.

Also Check out our K Sembulingam Physiology PDF Book here!

Meanwhile, check out our other Anatomy Books:

Overview

Inderbir Singh Embryology book is made for MBBS students who just got into MBBS and face the world-changing scenario of their life in their First Year. Juggling between studies and their personal life, they suffer from Anatomy, and super-added is Embryology which drains the blood from vessels. They seek 10-year question papers and beg for notes from seniors for Embryology, a sub-section of anatomy. The Inderbir Singh Embryology PDF Book contains 377 pages and is 29.2mb which includes 22 chapters (a painful death!)

Suggestions to those studying anatomy in first year of MBBS includes following:

  1. Watch Acland videos and compare with your book.
  2. Stick to BD chaurasia, it’s bible for mbbs anatomy.
  3. Make notes every time you dissect or learn from cadaver.
  4. Learn to make more of diagrams, examiners mostly stick to your presentation rather than your content, so a couple of diagrams and charts can help you win the race.
  5. Don’t ever miss Cadaver dissection, you might not get the opportunity again in life.

Inderbir Singh Embryology Latest Edition Book PDF Download

You can download the Inderbir Singh Embryology Book 12th edition by the Google drive links given below. We have also provided link to 11th edition as well. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page. Please also wait to load up the file as the file size may vary.



11th Edition

12th Edition

Disclaimer

Please note these are external links and we do not host any downloads on our website. If you are the owner of the content or have disputes regarding the terms, please read our complete Disclaimer page or leave us a message via our Contact Us page. Any violation or infringement will be immediately removed upon confirmation.

Vivek Jain PSM PDF Download Free [Google Drive Links]

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As we discussed previously, Community medicine, also known as PSM for Preventive and Social Medicine, is a subject that requires mastering with theory and clinical skills. This third year subject is often a kinky part for many MBBS students giving their prof exams. We have provided the Vivek Jain PSM PDF Download links below using the Google drive links.

Vivek Jain PSM PDF Book

There are 17 Annexures with 16 chapters and a section for Image based questions which are as follows:

ANNEXURES

  • Annexure 1: Incubation Period of Diseases
  • Annexure 2: Important Days of Public Health Importance
  • Annexure 3: Instruments of Importance in Public Health
  • Annexure 4: Mode(s) of Transmission of Diseases
  • Annexure 5: Some Important Health Legislations Passed in India
  • Annexure 6: Some Important Health Programmes of India
  • Annexure 7: Vectors and Diseases Transmitted
  • Annexure 8: New Tuberculosis Diagnosis (RNTCP) Guidelines in India (w.e.f. 01 April 2009 onwards)
  • Annexure 9: National Population Policy (NPP) 2000
  • Annexure 10: National Health Policy (NHP) 2015
  • Annexure 11: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
  • Annexure 12: New Malaria Treatment Guidelines in India (2013 onwards)
  • Annexure 13: Draft Guidelines: Biomedical Waste Management Guidelines 2011/2015
  • Annexure 14: Golden Points
  • Annexure 15: Current Public Health Related Statistics of India
  • Annexure 16: Honors in Health and Medicine
  • Annexure 17: High Level Expert Group (HLEG) Report on Universal Health Coverage (UHC)

TOPIC-WISE THEORY MCQs AND EXPLANATIONS

  • Chapter 1: History of Medicine
  • Chapter 2: Concepts of Health and Disease
  • Chapter 3: Epidemiology and Vaccines
  • Chapter 4: Screening of Disease
  • Chapter 5: Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases
  • Chapter 6: National Health Programmes, Policies and Legislations in India
  • Chapter 7: Demography, Family Planning and Contraception
  • Chapter 8: Preventive Obstetrics, Paediatrics and Geriatrics
  • Chapter 9: Nutrition and Health
  • Chapter 10: Social Sciences and Health
  • Chapter 11: Environment and Health
  • Chapter 12: Biomedical Waste Management, Disaster Management, Occupational Health,
  • Genetics and Health, Mental Health
  • Chapter 13: Health Education and Communication
  • Chapter 14: Health Care in India, Health Planning and Management
  • Chapter 15: International Health
  • Chapter 16: Biostatistics

IMAGE BASED QUESTIONS

In 8th edition of Vivek Jain PSM book, following changes and additions were made:

  • New Live Updated Lecture Epidemiology 3 hours (DVD)
  • New PICTURE MCQs with Answers (According to “Recent Examinations”)
  • Recent most solved MCQs papers
  • AIIMS May/November 2015, PGI May/November 2015, JIPMER PG 2015, Bihar PG 2015, AP PG 2015, ESI IMO
  • 2014–15, PGMCET 2015, UPSC CMS 2015
  • ALL “Recent Questions” 2012–15
  • Recent/New topics and changing concepts in PSM
  • New National Immunization Schedule 2016
  • Sustainable Development Goals 2015
  • National Health Policy 2015
  • Evidence Based Medicine, Meta-analysis, Systematic reviews
  • H1N1 Categorization, Oseltamivir Dosages
  • RNTCP: Weight bands, New Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines 2015
  • New DLHS Survey
  • New Initiatives: TB Mission 2020, ALL-IN Initiative, HIV-PEP
  • New Schemes: NIKSHAY, Swajaldhara, Link worker, Ujjwala, ICPS
  • New Health Programmes: NHM, RBSK, NSSK, RKSK, PMJDY, PMSSY, NUHM
  • New strategies: RMNCH+A, STOP/End-TB, NLEP 2012–17
  • New Changes in RTI/STI Treatment 2015 (STD colour kits, Suraksha clinic)
  • New PPTCT Guidelines 2015 (Triple ARV Prophylaxis)
  • New Rabies Prophylaxis Guidelines 2015 (Essen, Thai Red Cross Regimen)
  • New NACP Guidelines (HIV district classification, LAC, LAC PLUS, ART PLUS)
  • Newer/Emerging Diseases (H5N6, H7N9, Ebola, MERS-CoV)
  • New Vaccines (Malaria, Rabies)
  • New Protein Quality Assessment Guidelines 2015 (DIAAS)
  • Changes in Epidemiology of Various Diseases
  • Changes in National Health Programmes (NRHM, MDMP, JSSK, HNBC, ICDS)
  • Twelfth Five-Year Plan 2012–17
  • New Establishments (NITI Aayog, NIRT, NIE, NIDM, NDRF)

About the Author

  • Dr Vivek Jain
    • MBBS (Maulana Azad Medical College), New Delhi
    • MD (PSM/Community Medicine) (Lady Hardinge Medical College), New Delhi
    • Formerly
      • Senior Resident UCMS & GTBH, VMMC & SJH, Delhi
      • Faculty GFIMSR, Faridabad, Haryana
      • Consultant UN Office on Drugs & Crime, South Asia

Our Third Year Books for MBBS are here.

Meanwhile, check out our other Community Medicine Books:

Overview

Dr Vivek Jain PSM book is a finely carved book for MBBS students who are preparing for NEET PG exam after MBBS and looking forward to preparatory manual for Community Medicine subject. The latest edition of the book is 18.2mb file and has over 941 pages which contains the following including Annexures, Chapters with Theory, MCQs and Explanations and finally, Image based questions.

Suggestions to those who are looking forward to establishing a clinical understanding in Medicine are as follows:

  1. Read this book and carry it during the practicals and OPD. Have a quick look at the case studies quickly as you approach the patient with established diagnosis. You will feel more confident as you keep practicing this approach.
  2. Learn to make Doctor-Patient relationship and learn how to approach them, deal with different types of patients and how to interact with them with the common tongue.
  3. Learn how to examine different systems. If you don’t know how to do them, your diagnosis is going to be incomplete, you cannot always rely on lab reports and your seniors, do you?
  4. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you in clinical wards. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Vivek Jain PSM Latest Edition Book PDF Download

You can download the Vivek Jain PSM Book 8th edition by the links given below. We will update with Vivek Jain latest edition (11th and 12th edition) whenever we get the links. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page. Please also wait to load up the file as the file size may vary.



Download

Read Online

Disclaimer

Please note these are external links and we do not host any downloads on our website. If you are the owner of the content or have disputes regarding the terms, please read our complete Disclaimer page or leave us a message via our Contact Us page. Any violation or infringement will be immediately removed upon confirmation.

Plab 1 Study Material: Free and Paid

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Study Material for Plab 1 After MBBS

Have you already made up your mind to move out of your country after MBBS and move to UK and start working as a Doctor in UK after completing Plab exam held by GMC? You have just landed at the right destination! We will provide you with the most relevant list of study material you should be using for Plab part 1 exam.

Plab 1 Keys

Plab1keys are still on the top list if you are just starting your preparation. Unlike other preparation material, Plab 1 keys are simply notes of what you are going to face in exam. The current Plab 1 keys have 30 subjects including miscellaneous.  It simply contains questionnaires and detailed information of the topics you need to cover for your exam.

Free Plab 1 keys here to check out!

Free is attractive, right?

They frequently provide updates on their chapters after every plab 1 exam to include any update that comes along. If you are keen to understand more, you can check out their free chapters here.

You can find their offline (not recommended and also illegal) notes in PDF format from telegram or other groups easily, however, you will be missing important updates as the Update Key Numbers keep changing very often.

If you are looking to subscribing to their plans, you should register yourself first and then opt for one here. Their minimal plan starts at 30 euros for a month.

Plabable For Plab

Plabable for Plab currently have over 2500 questions with explanations for each option. They currently have plan for 3 months at 20 euros and 5 months for 25 euros.

If considered, Plabable is, by far, the best study material for Plab 1. Not just questions, it also has Revision guides, Gems (Quick way to revise high yielding topics), Webinars and the most exclusive Plab Mock tests.

Plabable beats Plab 1 keys if updates on guidelines and protocols is considered. There may be clashes between some words in Plab1keys and Plabable for Plab, but trust your instincts and stick to Plabable words in such scenarios since Plabable is updated by Doctors already working in NHS (and more importantly, their updates are often real-time and most trustworthy with a valid source)

You also get various Whatsapp group links which you can join to stay updated on information regarding different queries such as Visa applications for Plab, Webinars, Mock tests, Plab 1 seats availability, etc.

Reference Books

If you have enough time, Reference books are highly recommended. These include Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine and Oxford Handbook of Clinical Specialties. If you are ever stuck with something, refer to these to find the right answer.

Free Material for Plab 1

Below are some free study material which you can use for Plab 1 exam:

Conclusion

While some state that Plab 1 keys and Plabable is everything you need for Plab part 1 exam, we highly recommend that you do not miss any opportunity to grab free stuff also. The exam is focused on your clinical skills, if you are good with them, you will be seeing yourself as Licensed Doctor in UK soon. Best of luck to all Plab Aspirants out there.

Macleod Clinical Examination PDF 14th Edition Download

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Clinical Medicine is an art a medical student has to master and it goes without saying. It is something you simply do not mug up, but rather practice it again and again till you become acquainted to it. Clinical Medicine is a subject in Fourth Year of MBBS. Macleod’s is a book which can help you master your senses and help you build the clinical skills required to sit in OPD! You can download Macleod Clinical Examination 14th edition in PDF format using the Google Drive Links given below.

Macleod Clinical Examination 14th Edition PDF Book

There are 21 units in 4 sections in the book and these are as follows:

SECTION 1 PRINCIPLES OF CLINICAL HISTORY AND EXAMINATION

  • 1. Managing clinical encounters with patients
  • 2. General aspects of history taking
  • 3. General aspects of examination

SECTION 2 SYSTEM-BASED EXAMINATION

  • 4. The cardiovascular system
  • 5. The respiratory system
  • 6. The gastrointestinal system
  • 7. The nervous system
  • 8. The visual system
  • 9. The ear, nose and throat
  • 10. The endocrine system
  • 11. The reproductive system
  • 12. The renal system
  • 13. The musculoskeletal system
  • 14. The skin, hair and nails

SECTION 3 APPLYING HISTORY AND EXAMINATION SKILLS IN SPECIFIC SITUATIONS

  • 15. Babies and children
  • 16. The patient with mental disorder
  • 17. The frail elderly patient
  • 18. The deteriorating patient
  • 19. The dying patient

SECTION 4 PUTTING HISTORY AND EXAMINATION SKILLS TO USE

  • 20. Preparing for assessment
  • 21. Preparing for practice

Our Fourth Year Books for MBBS are here.

Meanwhile, check out our other Clinical Skills Books:

About the Author:

  • John Macleod (1915–2006)

Editors:

  • Karen Fairhurst
  • PhD FRCGP

Overview

This book is definitely not what you will be looking for exams, but yes, it can help you build the concepts required for Residency after MBBS. 402 pages embedded in a 62mb file, Macleod Clinical Examination book, this book beautifully brings in you the OPD experience in front of you. From styles of questions to asked to patients to the environment of hospital and to the responsibilities of you as a resident doctor, this book helps you visualize the workspace with amazing pictures. 21 Units in 4 sections, all you have to do is pick up which part you want to strengthen first (Personal recommendation: Go with Communication skills with patients first). Eventually, you will fall in love with book, BEWARE, don’t forget to stick to your theoretical too.

Suggestions to those who are looking forward to establishing a clinical understanding in Medicine are as follows:

  1. Read this book and carry it during the practicals and OPD. Have a quick look at the case studies quickly as you approach the patient with established diagnosis. You will feel more confident as you keep practicing this approach.
  2. Learn to make Doctor-Patient relationship and learn how to approach them, deal with different types of patients and how to interact with them with the common tongue.
  3. Learn how to examine different systems. If you don’t know how to do them, your diagnosis is going to be incomplete, you cannot always rely on lab reports and your seniors, do you?
  4. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you in clinical wards. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Macleod Clinical Examination PDF eBook Download

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Wilson ‘s Disease – Kayser Fleischer Rings

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Wilson’s Disease or Hepatolenticular Degeneration is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder that causes increased accumulation of copper into organs. The typical sign of Kayser Fleischer Rings is very well pronounced as it appears as Rings at edges of cornea. It is one of the disorder one must be familiar with when reading Gastromedicine, apart from Hemochromatosis.

Physiology

  • Total body copper content is ~125mg. Intake ≈ 3mg/day (absorbed in proximal small intestine). In the liver, copper is incorporated into ceruloplasmin.

Presentation

  1. Kayser Fleischer Rings
  2. Liver dysfunction- deranged liver function tests, cirrhosis
  3. Behavioral- Personality changes with reduced performance
  4. Neurological- Ataxia, dysarthria, dystonia
  5. Azure Lunulae: Blue Nails, Haemolysis, Arthritis, Hypermobile joints, Grey Skin

Investigations

  1. Urine: 24h copper excretion is high, e.g >100mcg/24h (normal <40mcg)
  2. Increased LFT: non-specific (but ALT >1500 is not part of the picture)
  3. Serum copper: typically <11μmol/L
  4. Decreased Serum ceruloplasmin: <200mg/L (<140mg/L is pathognomonic)—beware incidental low values in protein-deficiency states (e.g nephrotic syndrome, malabsorption)
  5. Molecular genetic testing can confirm the diagnosis
  6. Slit lamp exam: Kayser Fleischer rings: in iris/Descemet’s membrane
  7. Liver biopsy: Increased Hepatic copper (copper >250mcg/g dry weight); hepatitis; cirrhosis
  8. MRI: degeneration in basal ganglia, fronto-temporal, cerebellar, and brainstem
Kayser Fleischer Rings seen in Wilson Disease
Kayser Fleischer Rings seen in Wilson’s Disease or Hepatolenticular Degeneration are Golden to greenish-brown annular deposition of copper in periphery of the cornea (Descemet’s membrane).

More about Kayser Fleischer Rings

  • The Kayser-Fleischer Rings consist of copper deposits at periphery where the cornea meets the sclera, in Descemet’s membrane, first appear as a crescent at the top of the cornea. Eventually, a second crescent forms below, at the “six o’clock position”, and ultimately completely encircles the cornea.
  • Other causes of KF Rings are Cholestasis (Obstruction of the bile ducts), Primary Biliary Cirrhosis and Cryptogenic Cirrhosis
  • Diagnosis of KF Rings is usually done by Slit lamp examination. They become visible by naked eyes in later stages.Diagnosis of KF Rings is usually done by Slit lamp examination. They become visible by naked eyes in later stages. 

Treatment

  1. Avoid foods with high copper content (eg liver, chocolate, nuts, mushrooms, legumes, and shellfish).
  2. Lifelong Penicillamine (500mg/6–8h PO for 1yr, maintenance 0.75–1g/d)
  3. In Acute Liver Failure or Cirrhosis- Liver Transplant

Summary

  • Grey Skin, Serum Ceruloplasmin <140, Urine copper excretion >100mcg/24hr and Kayser Fleischer Rings in eyes; Rx- Lifelong Penicillamine

Delhi Fights Covid 19 Amidst The Third Wave

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Outside the Emergency of Rajeev Gandhi Super Specialty Hospital as I hear my senior explain the condition of my known-to patient during counsel sessions, I’m called by a staff for assistance. A young mid-20s female sitting blank over there, asks me in quiet tone- “Sir, my 1 month kid is covid positive, where should i go?” To be honest, my first clue was Chacha Nehru Hospital, but again, she said she has already been there and Ram Manohar Lohiya Hospital too.

Warriors in Rajeev Gandhi Super Specialty Hospital are already doing their best under guidance of Dr. Vikas Dogra Sir and Dr. Ajeet Jain Sir and the hospital is currently the one which is having most available vacant ventilator beds to hold the critical victims of the pandemic. But the question is, how far can we fight?

Covid 19 Hospital Beds ICU

Scenario 1: What if not Covid?

Delhi government has in fact set up the best (yes i mean best) organization of medical facilities to fight Covid 19 efficiently. But there are still sections that need to be looked. People who are having medical issues other than covid, are panicking because they simply don’t know where to go when situation demands.

Let me give an example again. Where will you go if you had an accident and broke your bone? Ask yourself the same question, and then ask if others around you know it too. See, it’s that simple. Casualties happen always, but we actually got no clue which path to walk. People should know what hospitals are treating the non-covid cases, and by that, I exclusively mean government run hospitals.

Scenario 2: Lack of Concern

I’m a typical atheist, yet I firmly believe in the notion of “God’s Punishment of Covid”, when i walk outside my home and see Covidiots roaming around without masks and laughing when i ask them to wear one.

Indeed, they don’t understand the gravity of the situation, but I will gladly smile too when such people suffer out of Covid. Before you judge me, I don’t actually blame everyone, for some good bosoms also suffer for the acts of others. 

Covidiots 19
Beware of Such Creatures, Infact Don’t Be One

Irregardless of the cases that have come up in the peak of third wave in Delhi, much is needed again to re-incite the cause for care in people around us. And for the cause, i almost got touched and heartbroken, for there is actually no information practically available to the people out there, when they ask themselves, “Where should i go?”

Scenario 3: Digital doesn’t reach everyone

Rather than digitalizing everything into apps and websites, people should be granted a way out of information in the very crude sources. Not everyone is used to apps and helpline platforms are doing their best, but still unable to reach everyone (i tried calling helpline for the same lady myself).

We know our leaders are most educated and always find a way to help their people, I just heed your approach on this too. We will undoubtedly come out of this together.

Conclusion

I seek Delhi government as a Doctor and a Delhite, for I know the voices are heard very often in our beloved city. Kindly help such citizens with valuable medical information they seek, so they don’t have to wander around looking for a hope.

Our guides and us will keep the fight on till our last breath, as we were taught in our Hippocratic oath to do so, but a little help will be exquisite. Concluding, Hope is everything, I’ll hope for me and you, you hope for all of us. We are always open to suggestions and feedbacks in the comments section below.

Trust me, it’s not at all FUN!

The Unsung Warriors Of Rajeev Gandhi Hospital

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While most of Delhites have learnt to live with the Covid-19, there has been an unconquerable increase in the number of cases in the past few months. Doctors and Medical staff are turning their efforts towards saving every precious life in hospitals, where Rajeev Gandhi Super Specialty Hospital, Tahirpur, stands the finest in East Delhi. Under the leadership of Dr. Ajeet Jain, the infrastructure has set the very foundations of what we may call the beginning of the new era: Covid Free India!

Filled with enthusiasm and an untiring zeal, Doctors here are working tirelessly, to not only treat their patients, but to create an atmosphere of assurance amidst the chaos. To watch them remove their PPE kits during doffing procedure, where the sweat drags itself on the floors, is like looking at a lake of efforts.

Under the leadership of our esteemed Director, Dr. BL Sherwal and Dr. Ajeet Jain, Nodal officer of the hospital, who works more than 12hrs a day, to guide everything in a direction of integrity, making sure everyone is safe and sound. Dr. Vikas Dogra, Head of Pulmonology department, can be seen throughout the premises of hospital, making sure patients needs are met genuinely. In a sound mind, it definitely is an exquisite hospital where other government hospitals might fail to meet the standards.

Despite 382 Doctors losing their lives fighting against Covid 19, our community isn’t losing the pace. We will keep believing in the simple notion of rebuilding everything once again.

Perhaps RGSSH is one of the leading hospital where Remdesivir Therapy and Plasma Therapy are being performed with highest cure rates and most preferable outcomes. A whole lot of protocols have been set up for the safety and consequences of the therapy, for one is accountable for every action he takes towards saving a life.

To conclude, we will honour the work our Doctors are doing everyday while we sleep peacefully looking at the bright side of life. Let’s not forget the ones we have lost, and leave the footprints on sands of time, for the seeds planted today will definitely bear the fruits tomorrow. Stay safe, stay healthy.

Honourable Mentions:

Assistant Professors:

Dr. Shaleen prasad
Dr. Utsav
The Almighty

Senior Residents:

Dr. Ankur
Dr. Ankit
Dr. Nitesh
Dr. Sandeep
Dr. Dinesh
The Guides

Team of Junior Residents:

Dr. Varun tyagi
Dr. Sachin
Dr. Amarjeet
Dr. Ankit kasana
Dr. Astha
Dr. Darksha
Dr. Kartik
Dr. Md Haris
Dr. Anil kumar meena
Dr. Anil
Dr. Kshitij
Dr. Ravi Chaudhary
Dr. Shaik
Dr. Akash
Dr. Rupesh
Dr. Intezar
Dr. Salman
Dr. Shabana
Dr. Deepanshu
Dr. Shashank
Dr. Tarif
Dr. Shreyak
Dr. Sanovar
Dr. Pooran
Dr. Linson
The Very Cores Of Every Foundation

Anemia: Understanding The Concepts

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Introduction

Definition

Anemia is the most mutual medical ailment of pregnancy. The occurrence of anemia in pregnancy ranges from 40-80 % in tropics likened to 10-20% in developed countries.

“Anemia is a reduction in red blood cells (erythrocytes) which in turn decrease the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. It reflects an abnormality in red blood cell number, structure or function”.

According to WHO, “Anemia in pregnancy is present when the hemoglobin concentration in the peripheral blood is 11g/100ml or less. Keeping in mind the socio-economic status, the level is brought down to 10g/100ml or less”. Or “Anemia is defined as a reduction below normal in the number of red blood corpuscles per cubic millimeter, the quantity of hemoglobin and the volume of packed red cells per 100 ml of blood”.

Classification of Anemia

Practically

Anemia is classified into two:

  1. Physiological anemia of pregnancy.
  2. Pathological anemia: it is further divided into:
    1. Deficiency anemia (isolated or combined)
    1. Hemorrhagic
    1. Hemolytic (Lack of bile pigment in urine)
    1. Bone marrow insufficiency
    1. Hemoglobinopathies

Causes of Anemia During Pregnancy

  1. Inadequate iron reserve
  2. Increase demand of iron
  3. Disturbed metabolism
  4. Pre pregnant health status
  5. Condition requiring excess demand
  6. Faulty dietetic habit
  7. Iron loss

Clinical Features

Symptoms

  1. Lassitude and a feeling of exhaustion or weakness may be earlier manifestation.
  2. Anorexia
  3. Palpitation
  4. Indigestion
  5. Dyspnea
  6. Gigginess
  7. Swelling of leg
  8. Pallor of mucus membrane

In examination

  1. There is pallor glossitis and stomatitis.
  2. There may be adima of leg.
  3. A soft systolic mermer may be geared.
  4. Crepitation may be heard.

Diagnosis of a Case of Iron Deficiency/Anemia

  1. Hematological examination
    1. Hemoglobin
    1. Total red cell count
    1. Packed cell Volume
    1. Peripheral blood smear
    1. MCHC, MCB and MCH values
    1. Serum Iron
    1. Total iron binding capacity
    1. Serum ferritim
  2. Examination of stool
    1. To detect anemia due to hookworm infestation
  3. Urine examination
    1. To check infection and presence of protein, sugar and pus cell

Complication of Severe Anemia

  1. During pregnancy:
    1. Pre-eclampsia
    1. Intercurrent infection
    1. Heart failure
    1. Preterm labor
    1. Abortion
  2. During labor:
    1. Uterine inertia
    1. PPH
    1. Cardiac failure
    1. Shock
  3. During puerperium:
    1. Puerperal Sepsis
    1. Sub involution
    1. Failing lactation
    1. Puerperal Venus Thrombosis
  4. Effects on Baby:
    1. There is increased incidence of low birth weight
    1. There are chances of intra uterine death

Nursing Management

  1. The pregnant women should get her hemoglobin level checked at the first antenatal visit, then at 28th week and finally at 36th week.
  2. The mother should be given iron protein and vitamin rich diet like
    1. Liver
    1. Meat
    1. Egg
    1. Green vegetable
    1. Figs
    1. Beans
    1. Whole wheat
    1. Green Plantains
    1. Onions stalks
    1. Jaggery
    1. Ground nuts
  3. She should be given oral preparation in the form of tablets and capsules
  4. Advise the mother to continue iron preparation.
  5. Dietary advice must be anthesised and reinforced as told earlier like richer source of iron and folic acid are to be given taken before, during and after pregnancy.
  6. While administration of parenteral iron check for advert reaction like rigor chest pain, hypertension.

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