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Robbins Basic Pathology PDF Free Download | Latest Edition Direct Links

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Pathology is one of the foundation subjects in medical line during MBBS that deals with causes of diseases and their mechanisms. Robbins Basic Pathology is another finest book after Harshmohan for Pathology during Second Year MBBS. We have provided Direct Download Links below to Robbins Basic Pathology Latest Edition Free PDF through Google Drive.

Robbins Basic Pathology PDF Book

The free eBook of 9th edition has three sections which has 23 chapters in total. These are as follows:

  1. Cell Injury, Cell Death, and Adaptations
  2. Inflammation and Repair
  3. Hemodynamic Disorders, Thromboembolism, and Shock
  4. Diseases of the Immune System
  5. Neoplasia
  6. Genetic and Pediatric Diseases
  7. Environmental and Nutritional Diseases
  8. General Pathology of Infectious Diseases
  9. Blood Vessels
  10. Heart
  11. Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Systems
  12. Lung
  13. Kidney and Its Collecting System
  14. Oral Cavity and Gastrointestinal Tract
  15. Liver, Gallbladder, and Biliary Tracts
  16. Pancreas
  17. Male Genital System and Lower Urinary Tract
  18. Female Genital System and Breast
  19. Endocrine System
  20. Bones, Joints, and Soft Tissue Tumors
  21. Peripheral Nerves and Muscles
  22. Central Nervous System
  23. Skin

About Author:

  • Robbins

About Contributors:

  • Kumar
  • Abbas
  • Aster

Overview

Robbins Basic Pathology is the one of the best books used by MBBS Students during their second year, and is best book if preparing for PG after MBBS over Harshmohan. With 23 chapters, the book has a total of 924 pages. The features of Robbins Basic Pathology 9th edition are as follows:

  1. Super HD Images
  2. Perfect tables, charts and differences
  3. Super Table of Index which helps in easiest navigation ever
  4. Weights and Measurements of Normal Organs
  5. Laboratory Values of Clinical Significance
  6. Perfect Appendix categorized as A-Z.

Suggestions to those studying Pathology in Second Year MBBS are as follows:

  1. Pathology may appear mixed up once you study a lot of topics since the diseases almost have similar histological features and more. Try defining them with one word or imagining them.
  2. Do not miss important topics, especially cancer classifications.
  3. Since this subject is base subject for upcoming years, it’s always suggested to keep the book and notes with you. Do not throw them, you will be needing them soon.
  4. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you understand clinical pathology. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Robbins Basic Pathology PDF eBook Download

You can download or read online the Robbins Basic Pathology 9th Edition book by links given below. You can mail us if you need latest editions of the book such as 10th, 11th or 12th edition of Robbins Basic Pathology. If the links are not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page. If you need other books, do check out our Downloads Section.




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Davidson 100 Clinical Cases PDF Free Download

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M edicine is a subject in Fourth year of MBBS that deals with making diagnosis and treating the patient clinically. Medical students often read a lot of theory from Harrison and other textbooks, but when it comes to practical thing, they have trouble co-relating. Books like Hutchinson Clinical and Arup Kumar Kundu help students grasp things, but still practice is needed. This is where Davidson 100 Clinical Cases Book comes useful for refining the medical knowledge gained from these books. In this post, we are going to provide Davidson 100 Clinical Cases PDF Free Download through Google Drive Links.

Do check out our other Medicine Books:

Davidson 100 Clinical Cases PDF Book

The Davidson 100 Clinical Cases book has over 391 pages which cover the 100 clinical cases from different areas of expertise. The book starts with Preface, Acknowledgement, Contributors and Abbreviations & ends with Biochemical and hematological values and Cardiovascular risk prediction charts.

About Author

Davidson

About Editors
  1. Mark W.J. Strachan
  2. Surendra K. Sharma
  3. John A. A. Hunter

Overview

Like we stated earlier, it is often easy to mug up text from theory books such as Harrison and Chugh or Matthews, but real exam comes when we have to handle the patient. That is the moment one has to apply his skills and make the diagnosis and treat the patient simultaneously. That, however, requires skills and a lot of practice indeed. Davidson 100 Clinical Cases PDF book gives doctors and students an idea about how to approach symptoms stated by patients. It provides them an opportunity to sharpen their skills and test their memory.

Davidson 100 Clinical Cases is definitely the best off-syllabus book that one should read and practice. It helps both Undergraduate students and Doctors, and MBBS Students widely use this book to enhance their clinical skills such as Clinical History Taking. Although reading Hutchinson and Arup Kumar Pearls in Medicine is suggested. The pattern of PG exams is changing, and more and more clinical questions are being added up. Davidson 100 Clinical Cases will help students practice these clinical questions, especially if they are preparing for NEET or PG Exams after MBBS. The book has over 391 pages with 100 chapters (cases).

The book also features separate sections called- “Biochemical and hematological values” & “Cardiovascular risk prediction charts”. These are quite helpful when referring to text without switching to other books.

Suggestions to those who are looking forward to establishing a clinical understanding in Medicine are as follows:

  1. Read this book and carry it during the practicals and OPD. Have a quick look at the case studies quickly as you approach the patient with established diagnosis. You will feel more confident as you keep practicing this approach.
  2. Learn to make Doctor-Patient relationship and learn how to approach them, deal with different types of patients and how to interact with them with the common tongue.
  3. Learn how to examine different systems. If you don’t know how to do them, your diagnosis is going to be incomplete, you cannot always rely on lab reports and your seniors, do you?
  4. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you in clinical wards. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Davidson 100 Clinical Cases PDF Book Download

You can download the Davidson 100 Clinical Cases Book by Google Drive Links given below. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page.

These are links to 2nd edition of the book, if you need 3rd or 4th edition, please follow our Facebook page to stay updated, we will be regularly updating them if we find latest editions which include 3th and 4th edition of Davidson 100 Clinical Cases. If you need other books, do check out our Download Section.



2nd Edition

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Please note these are external links and we do not host any downloads on our website. If you are the owner of the content or have disputes regarding the terms, please read our complete Disclaimer page or leave us a message via our Contact Us page. Any violation or infringement will be immediately removed upon confirmation.

[Video] Doctors Committed Suicide After Watching This

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It’s been a trend in India that people tend to be lured towards something that is “magically religious”. Everyone praises gods, but there are sometimes, when people use the god instead for making a couple of bucks. That’s where Babas or the Priests arrive. Not everyone, but there are indeed some real “Fake” babas in India who exploit their blind followers through some real bizarre, and gain fame and name.

Here’s one video that shows how people trust Babas over Doctors:

How to Draw Brachial Plexus in Less Than 10 Seconds

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The Brachial plexus is formed by the ventral primary rami of the lower four cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerves (C5–T1). It has roots & trunks (in the neck), divisions (passing behind clavicle), cords and branches (in the axilla). It is covered by a prolongation of prevertebral fascia (axillary sheath) around the nerves in the axilla.

Following Video will help you draw the Brachial Plexus in less than 10 seconds and learn it faster than any others! Just practice it, since it is always and always asked in First Year MBBS Anatomy exams.

Two branches are given directly from the roots in the neck:

  1. Dorsal scapular nerve (C5), which supplies rhomboid major & monor levator scapulae muscles.
  2. Long thoracic nerve of Bell (C5–C7), which is given in the neck, enters axilla and descends on the external surface of the serratus anterior muscle and supplies it.

Lateral cord gives three branches (LML), medial and posterior cords give 5 branches each. Radial nerve is a branch of posterior cord (STARS) and supplies posterior (extensor) compartment of upper limb. Ulnar nerve is a branch of medial cord (UM4) and runs on the ulnar (medial) side of the limb. Median nerve runs in the midline of the limb and has contributions from both medial and lateral cords.

Do check out our most popular posts:

Manipal Manual Of Surgery 4th Edition PDF Free Download

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Surgery is a subject in Fourth year of MBBS that deals with Surgical procedures and related medical science & Manipal Manual of Surgery, written by K. Rajgopal Shenoy, is widely used and recommended, best book used to study Surgery by Medical students. In this post, we are going to provide Manipal Manual of Surgery Latest Edition PDF Free Download through Google Drive Links.

Do check out our other Surgery Books:

Manipal Manual of Surgery PDF Book

The Manipal Manual of Surgery book has 4 basic units with an additional Viva Voce unit at the very end. These 5 units cover 53 chapters in total over 675 pages. The five units are:

Unit I: General Surgery: 21 Chapters

UNIT II: Gastrointestinal Surgery: 16 Chapters

Unit I: Urology: 6 Chapters

UNIT II: Specialties: 6 Chapters

Unit I: Viva Voce Examination in Surgery: 4 Chapters

About Author

K Rajgopal Shenoy

Overview

Manipal Manual of Surgery is recommended book by most universities for Undergraduate students, and MBBS Students widely use this book to study Surgery during their final semesters in Fourth Year. It is the best textbook in competition with SRB, while for clinical, S Das remains perfect. Book starts with Student’s opinion, then following Foreword, Contributors and Preface. Indeed Manipal Surgery has perfect standards, especially if you are preparing for NEET or PG Exams after MBBS. The book has over 675 pages with 53 chapters in total under 5 units.

The book also features a separate section called- “Viva Voce Examination in Surgery” which is super helpful to students to have an idea about viva during practical exams after theory ones. The X-rays, Instruments, Specimens are very useful to get an idea of what is coming. Operative surgery is simultaneously helpful.

Suggestions to those who are looking forward to establishing a clinical understanding in Surgery are as follows:

  1. Read up everything, even if you are not in a mood to mug up. It will clear out some concepts and some things are bound to stay in your long term memory.
  2. Try to co-relate the anatomical features as you see them with the diagrams in the book. It’s easy to get confused with the beautiful diagrams and the real time anatomy of a patient.
  3. Make up a habit of co-relating everything and you will find the book is almost everything you already know.
  4. Attend every OT (Operating theater) calls that you can get in. Watch out for surgeries that happen and study them in detail. Continue an interaction with the patient after surgery to learn more about post-op care.
  5. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you understand clinical medicine. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Manipal Surgery PDF Book Download

You can download the Manipal Surgery Book by Google Drive Links given below. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page.

These are links to 2nd edition of the book, if you need 3rd or 4th edition, please follow our Facebook page to stay updated, we will be regularly updating them if we find latest editions which include 3th and 4th edition of Manipal Manual of Surgery. If you need other books, do check out our Download Section.



2nd Edition

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Please note these are external links and we do not host any downloads on our website. If you are the owner of the content or have disputes regarding the terms, please read our complete Disclaimer page or leave us a message via our Contact Us page. Any violation or infringement will be immediately removed upon confirmation.

[Video] Arterial Blood Gas Sampling: Collection for Analysis

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An Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. Small amount of blood is drawn from arteries, which can be, Radial artery, Femoral artery, Brachial artery or another suitable one. An ABG test measures the blood-gas tension values of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, and the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and the blood’s pH. In addition, the arterial oxygen saturation can be determined.

Such information is vital when caring for patients with critical illnesses or respiratory disease. Therefore, the ABG test is one of the most common tests performed on patients in intensive-care units.

Watch the video below to see how a Phelebotomist or a Doctor performs Arterial Blood Gas Analysis on a patient:

Lippincott Illustrated Reviews Biochemistry PDF Download

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Biochemistry is a subject in First Year of MBBS that deals with scientific basis of life processes at the molecular level and Lippincott Illustrated Reviews is one of the books used to study it by Medical students. In this post, we are going to provide Lippincott Biochemistry Latest Edition PDF Free Download through Google Drive Links.

Do check out our other Biochemistry Books:

Lippincott Illustrated Reviews Biochemistry PDF Book

The Lippincott Illustrated Reviews of Biochemistry book has six units which covers 33 chapters in total:

Unit I: Protein Structure and Function

Chapter 1: Amino Acids

Chapter 2: Structure of Protein

Chapter 3: Globular Proteins

Chapter 4: Fibrous Proteins

Chapter 5: Enzymes

UNIT II: Bioenergetics and Carbohydrate Metabolism

Chapter 6: Bioenergetics and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Chapter 7: Introduction to Carbohydrates

Chapter 8: Introduction to Metabolism and Glycolysis

Chapter 9: Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex

Chapter 10: Gluconeogenesis

Chapter 11: Glycogen Metabolism

Chapter 12: Metabolism of Monosaccharides and Disaccharides

Chapter 13: Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate

Chapter 14: Glycosaminoglycan, Proteoglycans, and Glycoproteins

UNIT III: Lipid Metabolism

Chapter 15: Dietary Lipids Metabolism

Chapter 16: Fatty Acid, Ketone Body, and Triacylglycerol Metabolism

Chapter 17: Phospholipid, Glycosphingolipid, and Eicosanoid Metabolism

Chapter 18: Cholesterol, Lipoprotein, and Steroid Metabolism

UNIT IV: Nitrogen Metabolism

Chapter 19: Amino Acids: Disposal of Nitrogen

Chapter 20: Amino Acid Degradation and Synthesis

Chapter 21: Conversion of Amino Acids to Specialized Products

Chapter 22: Nucleotide Metabolism

UNIT V: Integration of Metabolism

Chapter 23: Metabolic Effects of Insulin and Glucagon

Chapter 24: The Feed–Fast Cycle

Chapter 25: Diabetes Mellitus

Chapter 26: Obesity

Chapter 27: Nutrition

Chapter 28: Vitamins

UNIT VI: Storage and Expression of Genetic Information

Chapter 29: DNA Structure, Replication, and Repair

Chapter 30: RNA Structure, Synthesis, and Processing

Chapter 31: Protein Synthesis

Chapter 32: Regulation of Gene Expression

Chapter 33: Biotechnology and Human Disease

About Author

Denise R. Ferrier

Series Editor

Richard A. Harvey

Overview

Lippincott Illustrated Reviews of Biochemistry is another most used textbook for Biochemistry after U Satyanarayana and Harper’s Illustrated Textbook. But the book has super detailed explanation, and perfect standards, especially if you are preparing for NEET or PG Exams after MBBS. The book has over 475 pages with 33 chapters in total under 6 units.

The book has a great disadvantage, it lacks any index, appendix or any other comprehensive guide. The diagrams are pretty neat and tables are easy to compensate with this though.

Suggestions to those studying Biochemistry in First Year MBBS are as follows:

  1. This subject is kind of mug-up everything, except some important topics that are important clinically. Such topics are must, and examples include Glucose Tolerance Test. Those preparing for Post Graduation will have to read everything though.
  2. 5-year question papers for your university are enough, you can try to do 10 years if you want.
  3. Focus on other subjects rather than all concentration on Biochemistry. Physiology and Anatomy are going to help you more than learning biochemistry.
  4. Check out our guide on Blood Test Interpretation- Normal Values and Red Range and Common Emergency Drugs used in Casualty Wards.

Lippincott Biochemistry PDF eBook Download

You can download the Lippincott Biochemistry Book by Google Drive Links given below. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page. These are links to 6th and 5th edition, we will regularly update them if we find latest editions which include 7th and 8th edition of Lippincott Biochemistry. If you need other books, do check out our First Year Books Download Section.

6th Edition





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5th Edition

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Please note these are external links and we do not host any downloads on our website. If you are the owner of the content or have disputes regarding the terms, please read our complete Disclaimer page or leave us a message via our Contact Us page. Any violation or infringement will be immediately removed upon confirmation.

Diabetes Mellitus: Types, Complications, Newer Drugs

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The Diabetes Mellitus is one of the hot topics in medical career, as it is widely seen among patients. But there are not just 2 types of diabetes,as you were taught in MBBS, there are 11! Below are our notes to Diabetes Mellitus to those preparing for NEET PG Exams after MBBS. Please do correct us if any, using the comments section below.

Definition

Diabetes Mellitus can be defined by the four criteria on basis of blood tests, which are given below:

  1. Fasting Blood Glucose (8 hrs) – 126 mg%
  2. Postprandial Blood Glucose – >200 mg% (after 2 hrs. of oral GTT: 75mg)
  3. Random Blood Glucose with symptoms – 200 mg%

Triad: Polyuria, Polydipsia and Weight Loss

  1. HbA1C > 6.5%

Best – American Diabetes Association (Average estimated glucose)

EAG – Estimated Average Glucose

Estimated Average Glucose: Conversion of % HbA1C into mg% of blood glucose is as follows:

  • 6.5 % – 126 mg%
  • 9.5 % – 226 mg%

Blood > Urine > PCT > Re-absorbs 1,5 Anhydroglucitol by Mannose-Fructose-1 receptor

1,5 Anhydroglucitol

It’s a serum used to find out hyperglycemia (at least 1 episode) in past 24 hrs.

 t1/2 = 24 hrs

Normally, glucose in urine is reabsorbed by PCT via SGLT2 while 1,5-Anhydroglucitol is reabsorbed from Fructose–Mannose-1 Receptor.

SGLT-2 is inversely proportional to FM-1

Therefore, in hyperglycemia, Increase of Glucose in urine leads to increase in activity of SGLT-2. This leads to Urinary loss of 1, 5-Anhydroglucitol which results in increased activity of FM-1. Finally, it results in decreased Serum level of 1, 5-Anhydroglucitol.

Therefore, low serum level 1, 5- Anhydroglucitol is a surrogate marker of increased BG at least once in past 24 hrs.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

There are 11 types of Diabetes Mellitus which are as follows:

  1. Type I DM
  2. Type II DM
  3. Type III DM
  4. Type IV DM
  5. Potential DM
  6. Protein Energy DM
  7. Acute Fulminant DM
  8. Tropical DM
  9. Double Diabetes
  10. MODY Diabetes
  11. LADA Diabetes

Difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Chart

The difference between Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is give below:

Type I DM Type II DM
1.   Pathogenesis Antibody – Destruction of β cells pancreas. Insulin receptor resistance.
2.   Chromosome Chromosome 6 Chromosome 2
3.   Family History 5-15% 50-70%
4.   HLA Association ++++

Increase in HLA-DR3

Decrease HLA-DR2 (Protective)

Absent
5.   Weight Loss Gain
6.   Age of Onset Younger

<30 Years

Older

>30 Years

7.   Serum Insulin Low (Insulinopenia) Increases (Causes destruction of β cells
8.   Complications Diabetic Ketoacidosis Hyperosmolar Non-Ketotic Coma

Antibody in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Usually questions asked:

  1. M/C – Antibody to inlet cells of pancreas.
  2. Anti- Insulin Antibody
  3. Anti – GAD (Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase) Antibody

Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Initial 1-3 Years after this, when insulin requirement is lesser than usual. (Honeymoon period of Type I Diabetes Mellitus).

Type III Diabetes Mellitus

Causes of Type 3 Diabetes Mellitus are given in the chart below:

Drug Induced Endocrine Defect Alzheimer’s Dementia
  1. Steroids
  2. Thiazides
  3. Clozapine
  4. Protein Inhibitors
  5. Phenytoin
  6. β-agonist
  1. Cushioning
  2. Hyperthyroidism
  3. Pheochromocytoma
  4. Acromegaly
  1. Brain Diabetes
  2. Insulin secretion to maintain its neuron (paracrine) > Decreased after 60 years > May lead to Memory Loss

Type IV Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational DM

Potential Diabetes Mellitus

If Single (15%) or both (40%) parents are diabetic, there’s increased chance in offspring, even though offspring may have normal Blood Glucose.

Acute Fulminant Diabetes Mellitus

  • Viral Infection – HIV / EBV (Mass destruction of β cells leading to Hyperglycemia)
  • Common in Pregnancy
  • Reversible – in about 80% cases

Protein Energy Diabetes Mellitus

  • Because of Insulin Deficiency (PEM), there is hyperglycemia
  • No need of Anti-Diabetic Drugs, but just nutritional support

LADA Diabetes Mellitus (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults)

  • Similar to Type I DM in Adults
  • Antibodies are more but less severe autoimmune DM as compared to DM 1
  • Decreased mass of β cell of pancreas

Treatment

Oral Hypoglycemic drugs:

  • Insulin for 2-3 Years
  • Type 2 (hence one and a half Diabetes)

MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young)

  • Pathophysiology – Insulin secretion defect.
  • Similar to Type II in young.

Features

  1. Thin built
  2. HTN/CAD Risk low
  3. Mild Hyperglycemia
  4. Autosomal Dominant

Types

There are 26 types of MODY, most common types are given below:

Type Gene Defect Chromosome
MODY-3 HNF1 Alpha Chromosome 12
MODY-1 HNF4 Alpha Chromosome 20
MODY-2 Glucokinase Chromosome 7

Features

  1. Autosomal dominant
  2. Mild Hyperglycemia
  3. Age of onset – 20 to 30 Years.
  4. More risk of developing HTN/CAD but less as compared to type II DM.
  5. BMI – <25
  6. Auto antibodies – absent ( + only in case of LADA & Type I DM)

Treatment

  • MODY-3: Insulin
  • MODY-1, MODY-2 & rest: OHA followed by insulin

ADPKD

Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease caused involving Chromosome 16 and Chromosome 4.

RCAD – Renal Cyst and Diabetes, meaning ADPKD + MODY-5.

Acute Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

  1. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (Type 1) – Hyperglycemia

Precipitating factors include Non-compliance to treatment and Infection

  1. Hyperosmolar Non-Ketotic Coma (Type II)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Life threatening complication of Type I DM leading to excessive Ketone body formation.

Precipitating Factors

  1. Non compliance to Treatment.
  2. Infection
  3. MI
  4. Stroke

Clinical Features

  1. Fever – if infection is precipitating cause
  2. Acute epigastic pain repeated (Nausea/Vomiting)
  3. Dehydration
  4. Feeble Pulse, Hypotension
  5. Altered sensorium in severe cases because of hyposmolality of blood
  6. Similar to Pancreatitis

Lab Investigations

  1. Blood Sugar is Greater than 400 mg%
  2. Serum Osmolality is 320-350 mOsmol/l
  3. Urinary Ketones – More
  4. Arterial Blood Gas – Metabolic Acidosis (In Kidney) due to Ketonuria leads to less HCO3 absorption in PCT and High anion gap.
Metabolic Acidosis
High Anion Gap Normo (Chloromic 10±2)
DKA Renal Tubular Acidosis
Lactic Acidosis Cholera
Alcoholic Acidosis Ureterosigmoidostomy

 

  1. Na+ – Decrease in Pseudohyponatremia
  2. K+ Hyperkalemia (Potassium move from Extra-cellular fluid to Intra-cellular fluid due to decreased insulin)

Pseudohyponatremia in:

  1. Paraprotein Increases
  2. Cholesterol Increases
  3. Glucose Increases

Leading to:

  1. Multiple Myeloma
  2. Dyslipidemia
  3. Diabetic Ketoacidosis
  • Na comes lane from Autoanalyser due to defect.
  • Every 100 mg% increase in Glucose results in Decrease in 1.6mg/L in Na.

If,

Na+ is Increased (Normal in tests after Autoanalyser) > Excessive dehydration in diabetic Ketoacidosis

K+ is Decreased > Hyperkalemia (K+ in loss of GIT Contents) and severe dehydration

Difference between Diabetic Ketoacidosis and HyperOsmolar Non-Ketotic Hyperglycemic Coma (DKA vs HONK or HHS)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Hyper-Osmolar Non-Ketotic Coma
1. Occurs in Type I Type II
2. S. osmolality 320-350 mosm >350 mosm
3. Blood Sugar >400 mg% >800 mg%
4. Expected fluid loss 4-6 L 8-10 L
5. Prognosis Less dangerous More dangerous

 

Treatment

  1. IV Fluids

Normal Saline (15-20ml/Kg/Hour for first 2-3 hrs followed by 200ml/hour till BG < 250 mg%)

  1. Insulin Infusion

I/V or Regular (plain)

0.15 IV/kg bolus dose followed by 0.1 IV/kg/hr flood glucose monitoring

Insulin Types: Regular, Ultra-short, Intermediate and Long Acting

  1. Potassium Replacement

10-20 mEq/hr K+ monitoring.

Treatment will eventually lead to hypokalemia from Hyperkalemia.

  1. Bicarbonate Replacement – No

Prognosis: 15-20% die even after best treatment

Complications

  1. Cerebral Edema (M/C of death in DKA)
  2. Arterial & Venous Thrombosis
  3. ARDS

Incretins

Substance released from stomach in response to oral glucose which potentiate or enhance the blood sugar lowering effect of stomach.

  • GIP – Gastric inhibitory peptide
  • GLP Agonist – Glucagon – A peptide

GLP Agonist-1

Eg. – Exanitide, Liraglutide

Side Effects
  1. Most common – Nausea/Vomiting
  2. Weight Loss – severe
  3. Bladder Cancer (Most dangerous)

Gliptans

Endogenous GLP-1 is converted to by-products through DPP 4. These Gliptan drugs prevent degradation of GLP-1 by inhibiting DPP 4, hence more availability of GLP-1 and decrease in blood sugar.

Examples: Sitagliptin, Saxagliptin, Vildagliptin, Linagliptin, Alogliptin

New Medications of Diabetes Mellitus

Given below are the newer drugs for DM:

  1. Gliptins
  2. Resveratrol – Anti-oxidant – decreases 20X doses antioxidant properly
  3. Colesevelam – bile and sequestrant
  4. Pramlintide (in both type 1 & 2) – Amylin analog – decreases glucagon levels in body causing hypoglycemia
  5. Fasiglifama free fatty acid Receptor Agonist. It’ll increase insulin secretion. FFAR-1 acts on beta cells.

Double Diabetes – Type I DM

Insulin requirement is increased in Insulin resistance (Type II DM). In patients of Type I DM, upon 5-8 years of onset, there is development of insulin resistance, i.e, feature of Type II DM, hence labelled as Double Diabetes.

Guyton and Hall Physiology 13th Edition PDF Download Google Drive

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Physiology is definitely the base subject in First Year of MBBS. Comparable to Anatomy and Biochemistry, this subject is much easier to understand. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Physiology is used widely to study this subject. Although AK Jain and Sembulingam are still renowned, Guyton still holds it’s value. You can download Guyton and Hall Physiology 13th and 14th edition in PDF format using the Google Drive Links given below.

Guyton and Hall Physiology PDF Book

There are 15 units in one single book (unlike AK Jain with two parts) and these are as follows:

  1. Introduction to Physiology: The Cell and General Physiology
  2. Membrane Physiology, Nerve, and Muscle
  3. The Heart
  4. The Circulation
  5. The Body Fluids and Kidneys
  6. Blood Cells, Immunity, and Blood Clotting
  7. Respiration
  8. Aviation, Space, and Deep-Sea Diving Physiology
  9. The Nervous System: A. General Principles and Sensory Physiology
  10. The Nervous System: B. The Special Senses
  11. The Nervous System: C. Motor and Integrative Neurophysiology
  12. Gastrointestinal Physiology
  13. Metabolism and Temperature Regulation
  14. Endocrinology and Reproduction
  15. Sports Physiology

If you need First Year Syllabus, you can check MBBS Syllabus here.

About the Author:

  • Arthur C. Guyton, M.D.†
  • John E. Hall, Ph.D.

Overview

As mentioned earlier, most medical students use AK Jain, however, Guyton and Hall is a deeply detailed book that is often used for NEET and other PG preparation after MBBS. There are 1152 pages in the book divided in 15 sections and 84 chapters in total. There is just one index at the end of the book. Indeed it’s so vast, that headache is common. But physiology is the base subject, and you simply cannot miss important topics.

Suggestions to those studying physiology in First Year MBBS are as follows:

  1. Try reading from this book from start or if you have ample of time. Otherwise, AK Jain is the life-saver to pass the semester exams.
  2. There are plenty of YouTube videos around and then there are some animations, which help understand the most important topics. Just don’t skip them, you will need them in your entire medical career.
  3. If you are preparing for PG Exams, do read this book. It will pave the way of better learning.
  4. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you in medicine. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Guyton and Hall Physiology PDF Book Download

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Child Dies On Bed Of Rabies As People Watch

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The video is currently viral on Facebook showing how a 16-year old boy named Challa Babu from Andhra Pradesh got bit by a street dog and suffered rabies. The video is equally brutal as it shows the child suffering, crying out in pain and symptoms of hydrophobia in a Hospital of Khammam under the presence of a state minister. The boy died 3 hours later because the hospitals couldn’t provide him the anti-rabies vaccine.

Before you read, we want to inform you that the video that was posted here, is 7 years old, 2011, when government was of PM Manmohan Singh. This has nothing to do with BJP, the current government of India. If anyone shares this video with you, please point to them the video is genuine, the date is not.

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