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Arterial Blood Gas Analysis: ABG Interpretation Made Easy

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We often encounter patients who are critically sick and need monitoring more than vitals like BP and Pulse rate. Patients are often required to be checked for Arterial Blood Gas Analysis to find what exactly is happening in the body of patient’s system. But it is often encountered that many students don’t know how to read ABG, and that’s why we are providing Arterial Blood Gas: ABG Interpretation Made Easy.

Normal Values to check in ABG

Before actually starting to interpret the ABG reports, one needs to remember the following normal values, without which, it is impossible to analyze anything. You can check all the values seen in ABG on wikipedia.

The basic components of Arterial Blood Gas are divided as follows:

  1. pH
  2. HCO3
  3. PaCo2

pH: 7.35-7.45

More than 7.45: Alkalosis

Less than 7.35: Acidosis

PaCO2: Arterial Pressure of CO2: 35-45mm Hg

Any disturbance means Respiratory cause.

More than 45mm Hg: Respiratory Alkalosis (could be compensatory)

Less than 35mm Hg: Respiratory Acidosis (could be compensatory)

HCO3: Bicarbonate: 22-26 mmol/L

Any disturbance means Metabolic cause.

More than 26: Metabolic Alkalosis (could be compensatory)

Less than 22: Metabolic Acidosis (could be compensatory)

Approach To Interpretation of ABG

Following are the steps one should follow when reading the Arterial Blood Gas and interpreting the values simultaneously:

1. See whether pH is within normal range or not. If not, then:

a. If Normal, the blood gas is compensated or not

b. If it outside range, then it is uncompensated or partially compensated

2. See whether PaCO2 is normal and:

(i) If PaCO2 normal, then:

a. pH: Normal, then blood gas is normal

b. pH decreased, then uncompensated metabolic acidosis

c. pH increased, then uncompensated metabolic acidosis

(ii) If the PaCO2 is higher than normal, then:

a. pH decreased and HCO3 is normal, then it is uncompensated respiratory acidosis

b. pH decreased and HCO3 above normal, then it is partially compensated respiratory acidosis

c. pH is between 7.35-7.40 and the HCO3 is elevated, then it is compensated respiratory acidosis

d. pH increased and HCO3 is elevated, then it is partially compensated metabolic acidosis

We hope this was pretty easy to remember, even if you cannot remember steps, just remember to go approach like: pH>PaCO2>HCO3. It will be easy once you start practicing. Once you have established the imbalance, you will be able to find out cause behind Acidosis/Alkalosis.

Like high ABG Acidosis refers to four causes: Ketoacidosis, Lactic acid acidosis, Renal failure and Toxins. Once you have established the cause and imbalance, you will be able to correct it in the patients.

[Clinical Notes] Cholelithiasis: Gall Stones History Taking Guide

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The Gall stones or Cholelithiasis are very frequently encountered with patients who typically present with epigastric or right upper quadrant pain. The doctor usually make diagnosis immediately based on the symptoms, however, are confirmed by radiological findings suggestive of Cholelithiasis or Gall bladder stones. We will be discussing the very core findings and the approach to Cholelithiasis in this post.

Types of Gall Stones

The first thing to know the causes of Cholelithiasis is, of course the types of Gall stones, so we can identify what etiology may be suspected in the patient. These are as follows:

1. Cholesterol: These are formed due to supersaturation which occurs in obesity, high calorie or patient on Oral contraceptive pills. Other causes include abnormal emptying of gall bladder or Ileal resection.

2. Pigmented Stones: Pigmented or colored stones are again of two types:

Black Stones: Due to hemolysis, could be due to sickle cell anemia, hereditary spherocytosis, etc.)

Brown Stones: Due to bile stasis and infected bile or with foreign bodies such as parasites (ascaris lubricoides), stents.

3. Mixed Stones

Clinical Presentation in Cholelithiasis

Clinical findings in Gall stones are as follows:

  1. Right Upper Quadrant Pain/ Epigastric Pain which may radiate to back. The pain of cholelithiasis is colicky in nature or dull and constant.
  2. Dyspepsia, flatulence, food intolerance particularly to fats, alteration in bowel frequency.
  3. Nausea, vomiting due to biliary colic.

Effects and Complications

  1. Biliary colic
  2. Acute/ Chronic Cholecystitis
  3. Empyema of Gall bladder
  4. Mucocele
  5. Perforation
  6. Biliary obstruction
  7. Acute cholangitis
  8. Acute pancreatitis
  9. Bowel obstruction

It is often a good idea to get a CT scan done if complication occurs. A USG is done to confirm diagnosis. If jaundice occurs, MRCP may be done to exclude Choledocholithiasis.

If resolution doesn’t occurs, then it is followed as:

Empyema > Necrosis and Perforation > Localized peritonitis > Abscess > Abscess may perforate into peritoneal cavity with a septic peritonitis.

Diagnosis and Approach Considerations

Once the clinical suspicion is settled, one can move to radiological findings for final diagnosis as:

  1. Radiological support: USG-CBD, X-Ray, MRCP, MDR-CT, HID Scan, ERCP, PTC, EUS
  2. Murphy’s sign: Right upper quadrant tenderness that is exacerbated during inspiration by examiner’s right subcoastal palpation. (with leukocytosis and with increased LFT)

Important Note

Do check for Courvoiser’s law in the patients of Upper quadrant pain when suspecting gall stone pathology

Courvoiser’s Law: Palpable and Non-tender Gall bladder due to distal CBD (Common Bile Duct) obstruction due to peripancreatic malignancy and not Gall stones.

Treatment and Management of Gall Stones

The patient could present with 3 conditions which are as:

  1. Asymptomatic Gall Stones

  • Nil Per Oral (NPO) and Intravenous Fluids (IVF)
  • Analgesics
  • Broad spectrum antibiotics against Gram negative bacteria such as Cefuroxime, Cefazolin or Gentamicin
  • Subsiding: Oral fluids, then continue regular diet

2. Symptomatic Gall Stones

For Cholelithiasis with symptoms, Cholecystectomy (Open/Laparoscopic) is the choice.

3. Cholelithiasis with Diabetes, Congenital hemolytic anemia or bariatric surgery

Prophylactic Cholecystectomy

We hope the short notes were clear on the topic- Cholelithiasis or Gall Stones. Special thanks to Dr. Pranjal sir for the motivation for the topic.

Drugs of Choice: Antibiotics Guidelines 2018 For Different Diseases

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We come across a common question when we see our senior doctors writing off antibiotics to the patients for random diseases: “how do they decide what to give?”. It could be amoxycillin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin or cefotaxime, but how does one decide what to choose? Well, the answer is simple, Antibiotics Protocol Guidelines 2018 have been set up for various diseases in a pdf which are very specific. Bookmark this page just in case you need to re-check what antibiotic to choose for various diseases prevailing in India.

Antibiotics Choice for Common Infections

1. Typhoid Fever

Caused by: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A

Initial treatment/preferred treatment:

Oral: Co-trimoxazole (1ds tab bd) or Azithromycin (10mg/kg/day)

Parenteral: Ceftriaxone 2g IV od

Alternatives: Cefixime (20mg/kg/day) or chloramphenicol 500 mg qid or ciprofloxacin 750mg bd

2. Gram Positive Infections

Caused by: Salmonella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Cefazolin 2g IV q8h or Cloxacillin 2g IV q6h

Alternatives: Amoxicilin-clavulanate 1.2 g IV q8h or Penicillin G 20 laks IV q4h (if S.aureus excluded) or Vancomycin (if anaphylactic penicillin allergy or MRSA clinically possible)

3. Gram Negative Infections

Caused by: E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, anaerobes especially Bacteroides sp in IAI

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Piperacillin-tazobactam 4.5g IV q6h or Cefoperazone-sulbactam 3g IV q12h

Alternatives: Imipenem 1g IV q8h or Meropenem 1g IV q8h or Ertapenem 1g IV od (carbapenems preferred for more seriously ill patients)

4. Rickettsial infections

Caused by: Orientia tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia conori

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Doxycycline 100 mg po or IV bd

Alternatives: Azithromycin 500 mg po or IV od, chloramphenicol 500mg qid

5. Leptospirosis

Caused by: Leptospira Sp

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Penicillin G 20 laks IV q4h or doxycycline 100mg po or IV bd

Alternatives: Ceftriaxone 2g IV od

6. Vivax malaria

Caused by: Plasmodium Vivax

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Chloroquine 25 mg/kg body weight divided over three days i.e.10 mg/kg on day 1, 10 mg/kg on day 2 and 5mg/kg on day 3

Alternatives: Artemether-lumefantrine (1 tab bd for 3 days)

7. Falciparum Malaria

Caused by: Plasmodium Falciparum

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Artesunate 4 mg/kg body weight daily for 3 days PlusSulfadoxine (25mg/kg body weight) and Pyrimethamine (1.25mg/kg body weight) on first day

Alternatives: Artemether-lumefantrine (1 tab bd for 3 days)

Antibiotics Drugs of Choice for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

1. Acute Pharyngitis

Caused by: Commonly viral

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: None required

Alternatives: None required

Caused by: Common bacterial cause is Streptococcus pyogenes

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Oral Penicillin V 500mg BD or Amoxicillin 500mg Oral TDS for 7 days

Alternatives: In case of penicillin allergy, Azithromycin 500mg OD for 5 days

2. Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis

Caused by: Streptococcus pneumoniae, H.influenzae, M. catarrhalis

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Amoxicillin-clavulanate 1gm oral BD for 7 days

Alternatives: Azithromycin 500mg OD for 5 days or Ciprofloxacin 500mg BD for 7 days

3. Acute Otitis Media

Caused by: Streptococcus pneumoniae, H.influenzae, M. catarrhalis

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Amoxicillin clavulanate 1gm oral BD for 7 days

Alternatives: Azithromycin 500mg OD for 5 days or Ciprofloxacin 500mg BD for 7 days

4. Acute Bronchitis

Caused by: Viral

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Antibiotics not required

Alternatives: Antibiotics not required

5. Ludwig’s Angina / Vincent’s Angina

Caused by: Polymicrobial (Cover oral anaerobes)

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Clindamycin 600mg IV 8 hourly or Amoxicillin clavulanate 1.2gm IV

Alternatives: Piperacillin tazobactam 4.5gm IV 6 hourly

Antibiotics Drugs of Choice for Urinary Tract Infections

1. Acute Cystitis (in absence of cultures)

Caused by: E.coli, Proteus sp, Klebsiella sp

Initial treatment/preferred treatment:

  • Nitrofurantoin 100mg BD for 7 days
  • Cotrimoxazole 500/125mg BD for 3-5 days
  • Ciprofloxacin 500mg BD for 3-5 days

Alternatives:

  • Cefuroxime 250mg BD for 3-5 days
  • Cefixime 400mg BD for 5 days

2. Acute Pyelonephritis (If blood culture is positive, a carbapenem is preferred)

Caused by: E.coli, Klebsiella sp, Proteus sp, S. aureus

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Piperacillin tazobactam 4.5gm IV 6 hourly for 10 days
Ertapenem 1g IV OD for 7 day

Alternatives: Imipenem 500mg IV 8 hourly for 10 days or Inj Amikacin 5mg/kg IV once daily x 10 days

3. Acute Prostatitis

Caused by: Enterobacteriaceae (E.coli, Klebsiella sp.)

Initial treatment/preferred treatment:

  • Doxycycline 100mg BD for 2-3 wks
  • Co-trimoxazole 960mg BD for 2-3 wks
  • Ciprofloxacin 500mg BD for 2-3 wks

Alternatives:

  • Piperacillin tazobactam 4.5gm IV 6 hourly
  • Cefoperazone sulbactam 3gm IV 12 hourly
  • Ertapenem 1gm IV OD or Imipenem 1gm IV 8 hourly or Meropenem 1gm IV 8 hourly

Antibiotics Drugs of Choice for CNS Infections in Bone Marrow Transplant Settings

1. Acute Bacterial Meningitis

Caused by: Pneumococcus, Listeria monocytogenes, H.influenzae, Meningococcus

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Ceftriaxone 2gm IV q12h / Cefotaxime 2gm IV q4-6h + Ampicillin 2gm IV q4h

Alternatives: Moxifloxacin 400mg IV q24h or Meropenem 2gm IV q8h

2. Brain Abscess, Subural Empyema

Caused by: Streptococci, Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, Staph Aureus

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Ceftriaxone 2 gm IV q12h / Cefotaxime 2gm IV q4-6h + Metronidazole 1gm IV q12h (Duration based upon clinical & radiological response, minimum 8 weeks)

Alternatives: Meropenem 2gm IV q8h

Caused by: Nocardia spp

Initial treatment/preferred treatment: Co-trimoxazole 15 mg/kg/dose (trimethoprim component) IV or PO, plus imipenem-cilastatin 500mg q6h

Alternatives: Linezolid 600mg IV or PO q12h

 

We will keep adding to the list of diseases and their antibiotics drug of choice and make the post as updated as we can. Meanwhile, you can help us by commenting in any if you know, with the source or book.

Bailey and Love Surgery 27th Edition Download PDF Free

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The Bailey and Love Surgery book is considered the best book so far by medical students, including the 4th year students, Interns, Junior Residents and even the SRs and HODs. It could even be called the bible of Surgery. The perfect book written by Bailey and Love for Surgery can be considered anywhere, and is most followed in India. In this post, we are going to provide you the Bailey and Love Surgery 27th Edition PDF Download Link for Free through the Google Drive. The links include Read Online and Download Book.

Also download:

Manipal Manual of Surgery

S Das Clinical Surgery

Bailey and Love Surgery PDF Book

The book has over 1453 pages which include wide variety of diagrams, tables, flowcharts, simplified superb text and explanations. The 27th edition of Bailey and Love starts with Principles, Investigations and Diagnosis part at the start to guide the medical students to a wider apprehensive learning of the surgery. There are 13 Parts in total in the book, some of which are:

  1. PART ONE: PRINCIPLES
  2. PART TWO: INVESTIGATION AND DIAGNOSIS
  3. PART THREE: PERIOPERATIVE CARE
  4. PART FOUR: TRAUMA
  5. PART FIVE: ELECTIVE ORTHOPAEDICS
  6. PART SIX: SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE
  7. PART SEVEN: HEAD AND NECK
  8. PART EIGHT: BREAST AND ENDOCRINE
  9. PART NINE: CARDIOTHORACIC
  10. PART TEN: VASCULAR
  11. PART ELEVEN: ABDOMINAL
  12. PART TWELVE: GENITOURINARY
  13. PART THIRTEEN: TRANSPLANTATION

Overview

Bailey and Love, as mentioned above, is the finest and most used book by the medicos in India and world. The book has everything you need to be the master of surgery. The standards set by Bailey and Love are undeniable and everyone follows them. The book has a lot of practical knowledge to grab too, yet, the amount of knowledge surpasses any other book present so far.

The Bailey and Love book of Surgery gives the students an opportunity to explore the conceptual methods and the deep insights to the world of Surgery. It helps understand the very minutest concepts and the very detailed ones too.

Suggestions to those who are looking forward to establishing an understanding in Surgery are as follows:

  1. Read up everything, even if you are not in a mood to mug up. It will clear out some concepts and some things are bound to stay in your long term memory.
  2. Try to co-relate the anatomical features as you see them with the diagrams in the book. It’s easy to get confused with the beautiful diagrams and the real time anatomy of a patient.
  3. Make up a habit of co-relating everything and you will find the book is almost everything you already know.
  4. Attend every OT (Operating theater) calls that you can get in. Watch out for surgeries that happen and study them in detail. Continue an interaction with the patient after surgery to learn more about post-op care.
  5. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you understand clinical medicine. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Bailey and Love Surgery 27th edition PDF Download

You can download the Bailey and Love 27th edition Surgery book by link given below. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page.

Please note the 27th edition is currently unavailable, we are providing you with 26th edition and will update the links to 27th edition as soon as we get them.




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Robbins Basic Pathology PDF Free Download | Latest Edition Direct Links

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Pathology is one of the foundation subjects in medical line during MBBS that deals with causes of diseases and their mechanisms. Robbins Basic Pathology is another finest book after Harshmohan for Pathology during Second Year MBBS. We have provided Direct Download Links below to Robbins Basic Pathology Latest Edition Free PDF through Google Drive.

Robbins Basic Pathology PDF Book

The free eBook of 9th edition has three sections which has 23 chapters in total. These are as follows:

  1. Cell Injury, Cell Death, and Adaptations
  2. Inflammation and Repair
  3. Hemodynamic Disorders, Thromboembolism, and Shock
  4. Diseases of the Immune System
  5. Neoplasia
  6. Genetic and Pediatric Diseases
  7. Environmental and Nutritional Diseases
  8. General Pathology of Infectious Diseases
  9. Blood Vessels
  10. Heart
  11. Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Systems
  12. Lung
  13. Kidney and Its Collecting System
  14. Oral Cavity and Gastrointestinal Tract
  15. Liver, Gallbladder, and Biliary Tracts
  16. Pancreas
  17. Male Genital System and Lower Urinary Tract
  18. Female Genital System and Breast
  19. Endocrine System
  20. Bones, Joints, and Soft Tissue Tumors
  21. Peripheral Nerves and Muscles
  22. Central Nervous System
  23. Skin

About Author:

  • Robbins

About Contributors:

  • Kumar
  • Abbas
  • Aster

Overview

Robbins Basic Pathology is the one of the best books used by MBBS Students during their second year, and is best book if preparing for PG after MBBS over Harshmohan. With 23 chapters, the book has a total of 924 pages. The features of Robbins Basic Pathology 9th edition are as follows:

  1. Super HD Images
  2. Perfect tables, charts and differences
  3. Super Table of Index which helps in easiest navigation ever
  4. Weights and Measurements of Normal Organs
  5. Laboratory Values of Clinical Significance
  6. Perfect Appendix categorized as A-Z.

Suggestions to those studying Pathology in Second Year MBBS are as follows:

  1. Pathology may appear mixed up once you study a lot of topics since the diseases almost have similar histological features and more. Try defining them with one word or imagining them.
  2. Do not miss important topics, especially cancer classifications.
  3. Since this subject is base subject for upcoming years, it’s always suggested to keep the book and notes with you. Do not throw them, you will be needing them soon.
  4. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you understand clinical pathology. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Robbins Basic Pathology PDF eBook Download

You can download or read online the Robbins Basic Pathology 9th Edition book by links given below. You can mail us if you need latest editions of the book such as 10th, 11th or 12th edition of Robbins Basic Pathology. If the links are not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page. If you need other books, do check out our Downloads Section.




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Davidson 100 Clinical Cases PDF Free Download

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M edicine is a subject in Fourth year of MBBS that deals with making diagnosis and treating the patient clinically. Medical students often read a lot of theory from Harrison and other textbooks, but when it comes to practical thing, they have trouble co-relating. Books like Hutchinson Clinical and Arup Kumar Kundu help students grasp things, but still practice is needed. This is where Davidson 100 Clinical Cases Book comes useful for refining the medical knowledge gained from these books. In this post, we are going to provide Davidson 100 Clinical Cases PDF Free Download through Google Drive Links.

Do check out our other Medicine Books:

Davidson 100 Clinical Cases PDF Book

The Davidson 100 Clinical Cases book has over 391 pages which cover the 100 clinical cases from different areas of expertise. The book starts with Preface, Acknowledgement, Contributors and Abbreviations & ends with Biochemical and hematological values and Cardiovascular risk prediction charts.

About Author

Davidson

About Editors
  1. Mark W.J. Strachan
  2. Surendra K. Sharma
  3. John A. A. Hunter

Overview

Like we stated earlier, it is often easy to mug up text from theory books such as Harrison and Chugh or Matthews, but real exam comes when we have to handle the patient. That is the moment one has to apply his skills and make the diagnosis and treat the patient simultaneously. That, however, requires skills and a lot of practice indeed. Davidson 100 Clinical Cases PDF book gives doctors and students an idea about how to approach symptoms stated by patients. It provides them an opportunity to sharpen their skills and test their memory.

Davidson 100 Clinical Cases is definitely the best off-syllabus book that one should read and practice. It helps both Undergraduate students and Doctors, and MBBS Students widely use this book to enhance their clinical skills such as Clinical History Taking. Although reading Hutchinson and Arup Kumar Pearls in Medicine is suggested. The pattern of PG exams is changing, and more and more clinical questions are being added up. Davidson 100 Clinical Cases will help students practice these clinical questions, especially if they are preparing for NEET or PG Exams after MBBS. The book has over 391 pages with 100 chapters (cases).

The book also features separate sections called- “Biochemical and hematological values” & “Cardiovascular risk prediction charts”. These are quite helpful when referring to text without switching to other books.

Suggestions to those who are looking forward to establishing a clinical understanding in Medicine are as follows:

  1. Read this book and carry it during the practicals and OPD. Have a quick look at the case studies quickly as you approach the patient with established diagnosis. You will feel more confident as you keep practicing this approach.
  2. Learn to make Doctor-Patient relationship and learn how to approach them, deal with different types of patients and how to interact with them with the common tongue.
  3. Learn how to examine different systems. If you don’t know how to do them, your diagnosis is going to be incomplete, you cannot always rely on lab reports and your seniors, do you?
  4. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you in clinical wards. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Davidson 100 Clinical Cases PDF Book Download

You can download the Davidson 100 Clinical Cases Book by Google Drive Links given below. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page.

These are links to 2nd edition of the book, if you need 3rd or 4th edition, please follow our Facebook page to stay updated, we will be regularly updating them if we find latest editions which include 3th and 4th edition of Davidson 100 Clinical Cases. If you need other books, do check out our Download Section.



2nd Edition

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Please note these are external links and we do not host any downloads on our website. If you are the owner of the content or have disputes regarding the terms, please read our complete Disclaimer page or leave us a message via our Contact Us page. Any violation or infringement will be immediately removed upon confirmation.

[Video] Doctors Committed Suicide After Watching This

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It’s been a trend in India that people tend to be lured towards something that is “magically religious”. Everyone praises gods, but there are sometimes, when people use the god instead for making a couple of bucks. That’s where Babas or the Priests arrive. Not everyone, but there are indeed some real “Fake” babas in India who exploit their blind followers through some real bizarre, and gain fame and name.

Here’s one video that shows how people trust Babas over Doctors:

How to Draw Brachial Plexus in Less Than 10 Seconds

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The Brachial plexus is formed by the ventral primary rami of the lower four cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerves (C5–T1). It has roots & trunks (in the neck), divisions (passing behind clavicle), cords and branches (in the axilla). It is covered by a prolongation of prevertebral fascia (axillary sheath) around the nerves in the axilla.

Following Video will help you draw the Brachial Plexus in less than 10 seconds and learn it faster than any others! Just practice it, since it is always and always asked in First Year MBBS Anatomy exams.

Two branches are given directly from the roots in the neck:

  1. Dorsal scapular nerve (C5), which supplies rhomboid major & monor levator scapulae muscles.
  2. Long thoracic nerve of Bell (C5–C7), which is given in the neck, enters axilla and descends on the external surface of the serratus anterior muscle and supplies it.

Lateral cord gives three branches (LML), medial and posterior cords give 5 branches each. Radial nerve is a branch of posterior cord (STARS) and supplies posterior (extensor) compartment of upper limb. Ulnar nerve is a branch of medial cord (UM4) and runs on the ulnar (medial) side of the limb. Median nerve runs in the midline of the limb and has contributions from both medial and lateral cords.

Do check out our most popular posts:

Manipal Manual Of Surgery 4th Edition PDF Free Download

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Surgery is a subject in Fourth year of MBBS that deals with Surgical procedures and related medical science & Manipal Manual of Surgery, written by K. Rajgopal Shenoy, is widely used and recommended, best book used to study Surgery by Medical students. In this post, we are going to provide Manipal Manual of Surgery Latest Edition PDF Free Download through Google Drive Links.

Do check out our other Surgery Books:

Manipal Manual of Surgery PDF Book

The Manipal Manual of Surgery book has 4 basic units with an additional Viva Voce unit at the very end. These 5 units cover 53 chapters in total over 675 pages. The five units are:

Unit I: General Surgery: 21 Chapters

UNIT II: Gastrointestinal Surgery: 16 Chapters

Unit I: Urology: 6 Chapters

UNIT II: Specialties: 6 Chapters

Unit I: Viva Voce Examination in Surgery: 4 Chapters

About Author

K Rajgopal Shenoy

Overview

Manipal Manual of Surgery is recommended book by most universities for Undergraduate students, and MBBS Students widely use this book to study Surgery during their final semesters in Fourth Year. It is the best textbook in competition with SRB, while for clinical, S Das remains perfect. Book starts with Student’s opinion, then following Foreword, Contributors and Preface. Indeed Manipal Surgery has perfect standards, especially if you are preparing for NEET or PG Exams after MBBS. The book has over 675 pages with 53 chapters in total under 5 units.

The book also features a separate section called- “Viva Voce Examination in Surgery” which is super helpful to students to have an idea about viva during practical exams after theory ones. The X-rays, Instruments, Specimens are very useful to get an idea of what is coming. Operative surgery is simultaneously helpful.

Suggestions to those who are looking forward to establishing a clinical understanding in Surgery are as follows:

  1. Read up everything, even if you are not in a mood to mug up. It will clear out some concepts and some things are bound to stay in your long term memory.
  2. Try to co-relate the anatomical features as you see them with the diagrams in the book. It’s easy to get confused with the beautiful diagrams and the real time anatomy of a patient.
  3. Make up a habit of co-relating everything and you will find the book is almost everything you already know.
  4. Attend every OT (Operating theater) calls that you can get in. Watch out for surgeries that happen and study them in detail. Continue an interaction with the patient after surgery to learn more about post-op care.
  5. If you need help, following are some posts that can greatly help you understand clinical medicine. They have been made short but explained to the level of a medical student. These are:

Manipal Surgery PDF Book Download

You can download the Manipal Surgery Book by Google Drive Links given below. If the link is not working, do let us know using the comments section, we will readily update it. If you are unable to locate the links, please refresh the page.

These are links to 2nd edition of the book, if you need 3rd or 4th edition, please follow our Facebook page to stay updated, we will be regularly updating them if we find latest editions which include 3th and 4th edition of Manipal Manual of Surgery. If you need other books, do check out our Download Section.



2nd Edition

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Disclaimer

Please note these are external links and we do not host any downloads on our website. If you are the owner of the content or have disputes regarding the terms, please read our complete Disclaimer page or leave us a message via our Contact Us page. Any violation or infringement will be immediately removed upon confirmation.

[Video] Arterial Blood Gas Sampling: Collection for Analysis

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An Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. Small amount of blood is drawn from arteries, which can be, Radial artery, Femoral artery, Brachial artery or another suitable one. An ABG test measures the blood-gas tension values of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, and the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and the blood’s pH. In addition, the arterial oxygen saturation can be determined.

Such information is vital when caring for patients with critical illnesses or respiratory disease. Therefore, the ABG test is one of the most common tests performed on patients in intensive-care units.

Watch the video below to see how a Phelebotomist or a Doctor performs Arterial Blood Gas Analysis on a patient:

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Read our list of Emergency drugs used in Casualty wards. The list is made according to India with detailed drug class and uses. Find the life saving drugs in Cardiology, Respiratory, GIT, Obstetrics, Painkillers, Allergy, CNS and Antibiotics.
MBBS What is Full Form or Name of Degree

MBBS: What is Full Form or Name of Degree?

Indeed you are a medico, but do you know MBBS has been selected as the toughest course in Guinness Book of World Records? Do you even know what is the history of MBBS and what does the word literary means? Find it here.
DAMS Handwritten Notes 2017 PDF Free Download

DAMS Handwritten Notes 2017 PDF Free Download

The DAMS Handwritten Notes are here for free Download in PDF Format for your mobile phone and computer. Grab the latest notes from DAMS teachers for year 2017 and 2018 NEET PG exam now!
NEET PG Results 2018 are out! Check here now

NEET PG Results 2018 | Cutoff Marks | Updates

The NEET PG Results 2018 are out! Those who have appeared for the Post-Graduation exam after MBBS in December can now check their results here. Wish you all the best!

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